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Transcript of Fallacies
Refers to errors of reasoning.
Comes from Latin term fallere, which means “to deceive”.
A type of argument that seems to be valid, it conceals error, and projects an apparent truth. Introduction Fallacy of Language When a word carrying different meanings is used in the same context in a particular argument. Equivocation Example: A king moves one square in any direction;
But Solomon is a King;
Therefore, Solomon moves one square in any direction. Grammatical construction of sentence is not clear and is therefore open to different interpretations. Amphiboly Example: I would like to buy a clock for my boyfriend with three hands. This fallacy arises from false accent or a false emphasis in speech. Accent/Prosody Example: "I resent the letter."
"I resent the letter." A fallacy committed when property of the parts is illicitly taken to belong to the whole. Composition Example: Every song on the album lasts less than an hour.
Therefore, the album lasts less than an hour. A fallacy committed when a property of the whole is illicitly taken to belong to its parts. Division Example: Water is liquid.
Therefore, H2O molecules are liquid. This fallacy infers a similarity of meaning from the similarity of the material pattern of the two words. Word Construction Example: People of Burma are called Burmese
People of China are called Chinese
Therefore, the people of Canada must be Canadese. Informal Fallacy Often known by the Latin name “ignoratio elenchi” or “ ignorance of refutation” – Irrelevant Thesis.
a fallacy in logic of supposing a point proved or disproved by an argument proving or disproving something not at issue. Ignoratio Elenchi Example: "I think that we should make the academic requirements stricter for students. I recommend that you support this because we are in a budget crisis and we do not want our salaries affected." A fallacy committed when general rule is applied when circumstances suggest an exception to the rule. Accident Example: We have to be generous to others.
Therefore, during examination we have to share our answers with or seatmate to show that we are generous. (Begging the question) An argument fails to prove anything because it somehow takes for granted what it is supposed to prove. Petitio Principii Vicious Circle
-a problem or difficult situation that has the effect of creating new problems which then cause the original problem or situation to occur again. Petitio Principii Example: Why are you standing?
Because I'm not sitting. Question-Begging Expressions
-a fallacy in which the premises include the claim that the conclusion is true or (directly or indirectly) assume that the conclusion is true. Petitio Principii Example: Let us deliberate on whether this troublemaker with failing grades who deserves to be kicked-out should either be expelled or suspended. Complex Questions
-this fallacy occurs when a single question that is really two (or more) questions is asked, and a single answer is illegitimately applied to both. Petitio Principii Example: "Have you stopped cheating in your class?"
Premise-Conclusion Argument Petitio Principii Example: "We are living today in a modernized world because everything now is modern." (False Cause) An argument made when one asserts that the occurrence of two events, one after the other, is a caused-effect relationship. Post Hoc Example: He met an accident because it is Friday the 13nth. (Attack against man) This fallacy is committed when one focuses on character assassination rather than challenge the merit of the opponent’s argument. Argumentatum ad Hominem Abusive (Poisoning the Well):
- Discrediting the authority of the speaker. Argumentatum ad Hominem Example "Are we going to agree with that dirty pig is saying?" Circumstantial:
-Attention is directed to the relationship between the person making the assertion and his/her circumstances. Argumentatum ad Hominem Example: "I will not vote for her no matter what how good she is because she is a daughter of a murderer." Tu quoque (you, too):
-Attempts to defend oneself from criticism by turning the critique back against the accuser. Argumentatum ad Hominem Example: "Hey wait a minute. You tell me that i should not cheat. Don't you forget you buy pirated DVDs, isn't that cheating?" (Appeal to misplaced authority) A fallacy committed when one makes an appeal using an alleged expert advice who is not an authority in the subject matter. Argumentatum ad Verecundiam Example: Sleeping with your hair wet can make you blind. That's true! That's what my Lola said. (Appeal to Ignorance) A fallacy committed when one argues that something must be true on the basis that it has not been proven false and vice-versa. Argumentatum ad Ignorantiam Example: "If you can't prove me wrong,
therefore I am right." Emotional Appeal (Appeal to Pity) A fallacy committed when one pleads for mercy and disregarding the point in question. Argumentatum ad Misericordiam Example: Your honor, my client, Pedro Abdan, does not deserve imprisonment. He has three small children that needs a father, and a wife that needs a husband." (Appeal to People) A fallacy committed when one attempts to win popular assent to a conclusion by using persuasive emotional language. Or claiming an assertion is true on the basis of popular opinion. Argumentatum ad Populum Example: "Many Filipinos believe that PGMA cheated in the 2004 elections, thus she must have really cheated." (Appeal to Force) A fallacy committed when one uses physical force or moral pressure in making assertion. Argumentatum ad Baculum Example: "Marry me or if you don't, I shall see to it that your love ones will bear my grunt!" A fallacy committed when one uses his/her own prestige to prove something. Appeal to Pride Example: "Who else can make it right? It is only I, the best among all of you." An appeal is made to the person to perform an act contrary to the person’s will because the advantage preferred is given. Appeal to Advantage Example: "If you allow this illegal transaction, I will share 20 percent of my profits to you."