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Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company
1670, Hudson's Bay Company were given trade rights in Rupert's Land
HBC built trading forts to better trade with the First Nations and to provide protection for their traders, goods, and fur
North West Company became established to compete with the HBC
NWC worked closely with First Nations and the Metis
Was built by the HBC between 1825-1831
Located on the North Saskatchewan River
Had stockades, cannons, and large gates to help protect it
People were able to live and trade there
Traded beavers for goods such as cloth, tobacco, metal goods, etc.
Start of the Fur Trade
Began in Eastern Canada
French were the first country to start it
1670, the Hudson's Bay Company was formed by the British to compete with the French
Were given the area, Rupert's Land (without speaking with the First Nations)
Trading forts were developed to house stockades, provide protection, and give traders a place to stay
The fur trade was very important to the development of the interior of Canada. Europeans and First Nations people traded furs for various items such as pots and cloth.
Europeans got the furs directly from the First Nations people or from the coureur de bois. They then sold the furs to Europe who made them into into felt objects (like hats).
4.2.1 - recognize the presence and influence of diverse Aboriginal peoples as inherent to Alberta’s culture and identity
recognize the history of the French language and the vitality of Francophone communities as integral parts of Alberta’s heritage
recognize British institutions and peoples as integral parts of Alberta’s heritage
4.2.2 - What movement or migration within Canada contributed to the populating of Alberta?
In what ways did Francophones establish their roots in urban and rural Alberta (i.e., voyageurs, missionary work, founding institutions, media, politics, commerce)?
David Thompson - map maker who traveled across Canada. Took notes as he traveled on his location, the environment, and the people he met. Became a great navigator. Eventually was hired by the North West Company.
Anthony Henday - Worked for the Hudson's Bay Company. His job was to convince First Nations people to trade buffalo hides with them. He traveled very far west but was unable to convince the First Nations to travel to Hudson's Bay to trade.
Why do you think an Edmonton road is named after Anthony Henday?
- Was the first non-Aboriginal woman to move west with her husband who was a voyageur
- Traveled the fur traders routes
- Added a Francophone influence to Fort Edmonton
- Had 8 children
If you could ask these people any questions, what would you want to know?
Coureurs de Bois - Runners of the woods. Would travel to find furs themselves or trade with the First Nations people for furs.
The Voyageurs - they transported the trade goods from the eastern cities to the trade forts. They would then return with furs back to the cities. They were very strong men and had to be good at using a canoe.
The Metis - Worked as voyageurs and coureur de bois. Were a mix of culture, language and traditions. The Metis sash was worn by them to keep them warm, support their backs, and represent their culture.
What are some other details you can tell me about the Metis sash?
There were many different positions people could work at the forts: chief factor, clerks, skilled tradesmen, and labourers. Each position was needed to make the fort run.
Forts needed protection as First Nations groups could attack, there were wild animals, traders could attempt to steal, or rival fur trading companies could attack.
Why do you think the fur trade was important in Canada becoming a country?