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Transcript of Teen Pregnancy:
This includes free:
birth control pills without copay
birth control patches
birth control shot
permanent contraception methods (tubal ligation)
FDA approved sterilization procedures and patient education/counseling for all women with reproductive capacity
Applies to health insurance plans you get through your employer or yourself
8 million people have signed up already.
Congress has repealed 52 times already. If repealed, this cuts off all free access to birth control.
Currently an ongoing debate
** COMPARED TO MARGARET SANGER-
When reading about Sandra Fluke, I immediately thought of Sanger and her defense of birth control in Robert’s article “The Dark Side of Birth Control.” Both Sandra Fluke and Sanger spoke out against authoritative decisions being made against women’s rights and defended the importance of a woman’s ability to access birth control and empowered women to experience a liberated form of sexuality, despite the social back lash they received.
Georgetown student testified before Congress in 2012 defending contraception
Argued about importance of healthcare for several women’s needs not only to prevent
ovarian syndrome, etc.)
It can cost about $3000 for law students to pay for birth control all three years
Conservative radios called her a “slut” and “prostitute” for holding these opinions
Predicting teenage pregnancy
-Locus of control external vs. internal
-Educational expectations of self
-Confidence in Self graduating high school
-Parents’ expectations of their daughters
Correlates of Teen Pregnancy
Emotional Deprivation Model:
the idea that girls who lack satisfactory emotional support and stability may seek early sex and motherhood for a secure parent- child emotional attachment
** Edin/Kefalas article..
Teen girls/moms consider this a solution in midst of crisis...more likely to end up in unwed/on welfare/poor.
Girls raised in poverty by single parents or by parents with little education are at higher risk
Hispanic families maintain cultural/religious beliefs that discourage contraceptive use and abortion (social pressures) leading to higher rates of unwed teenage mothers living in poverty.
Teenagers who reside in lower-income, urban communities with higher rates of poverty, welfare dependence and single-female headed households are at higher risk.
outcomes of teen pregnancy
Early parenthood negatively affects the educational attainment of girls:
young teenage mothers were unable to pursue higher education after childbirth and had lower levels of education compared to peers who delayed parenthood.
Once they drop out of high school due to an unintended pregnancy, only 30% will return to graduate.
Teenage fathers work more hours following childbirth resulting in:
lower long-term labor market activity
Due to their own low socioeconomic backgrounds, financial contributions are very low.
Due to their low educational attainment combined with other factors such as:
preexisting low-socioeconomic status
low wage/low skill employment
child care expenses
lower lifetime salary (no college education)
marital status (single-female headed household)
Teenage mothers are more likely to have lower incomes as adults and more likely to be on welfare than those who delay parenthood.
Use of welfare is higher and income lower immediately after birth.
*Common misconception: "Welfare Queen"
Based on discussion we had in class
A teenage birth doubles the likelihood that a woman will be poor around the ages of 21-33 which increases the rate of poverty from 16%-28%.
Teenage girls who are poor students with low educational aspirations are more likely to become teen moms and drop out of high school
Drug and alcohol use leads to an early onset of promiscuous sexual activity unprotected sex higher rates of teen pregnancy
Contraceptives vs. No contraceptives
Consistent-Effective vs. Sporadic- Ineffective
Difference due to:
lack of knowledge about reproduction and contraception
little access to family planning and health services
lack of preparation for protected sexual encounter
Feelings of invulnerability also result in the belief that pregnancy could never happen to them which lead to ineffective contraceptive use among teens.
Teen Births: 305,388
Costs to taxpayers associated with teen childbearing: $9.4 billion
Change in teen birth rate from 1991: -52%
Change in teen birth rate from 2011: -6%
Number of Teen Births by Race/Ethnicity
Non-Hispanic White: 119,757
Non-Hispanic Black: 71,286
Compared with higher income women (White), low-income women are less likely to use birth control or terminate an unintended pregnancy than women from any other racial group.
Unintended pregnancies are higher among poor, lower-income, minority communities.
The unintended pregnancy rate among only sexually active teens is more than double the rate of among all women.
Thus, a considerable portion of teenage mothers, Black and/or Hispanic, are poor and are more likely to be dependent on welfare. funding.
Proportion of Teen Births by Age
Under 15: 1%
Social Issues linked to teenage pregnancy
GRAPHIC IMAGE AHEAD!
SEX EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS
The Argument for Abstinence Only Education
Having the highest rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among developed nations, the U.S. government supports abstinence only education in an effort to reduce rates.
The U.S. federal government funded $176 million dollars in 2006 and 2007.
Under federal government funding, most abstinence only programs cannot include any information about safe-sex practices.
Teaching teens about safe-sex use will send mixed signals and actually encourage promiscuous activity leading to pregnancy.
Less than half of teen mothers (age 17 and younger) graduate from high school, and fewer than 2% earn a college degree by the age of 30.
Children of teen mothers are more likely to be born prematurely and at low birth weight and are twice as likely to suffer abuse and neglect than children born to older mothers.
2/3 of families begun by a young unmarried mother are poor.
Daughters of teen mothers are more likely to become teen mothers themselves than daughters born to older women.
Children of teen mothers are 50% more likely to repeat a grade and less likely to complete high school than the children of older mothers; they also score lower on standardized tests.
Teen childbearing in the United States costs taxpayers (federal, state, and local) at least $9.1 billion in a single year.
← Black, Hispanic and low-income teens are particularly unlikely to have received education on birth control before they first have sex
The reality of abstinence only
educations across the states
abstinence only education ineffective?
Abstinence only education withholds information
Abstinence only education promotes abstinence through fear of STDS, romanticizing sex and marriage, and teaching scientifically incorrect information
Obamacare & Birth Control
how to properly put on a condom
Trends among teen pregnancy rates in 2005 showed that rates averaged 48.1 pregnancies per 1000 white teens, 103.7 pregnancies per 1000 black teens, and 141.6 pregnancies per 1000 hispanic teens.
Education level is not correlated with teen pregnancy rates, but is positively correlated with teen abortion rates and negatively correlated with teen birth rates. These pregnancy and birth rates show that white teens are less likely to become pregnant and follow through with the pregnancy.
The trends among teens can be explained by studies that have shown richer states that “tend to have a higher proportion of white teens in their teen populations, tend to emphasize abstinence less, and tend to have lower teen pregnancy and birth rates than poorer states”(Hall, Stanger-Hall).
PREGNANCY AMONG TEENS
“Another Chance: Preventing Additional Births to Teen Mothers.” (2004). Washington, D.C.: National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Web.
Birth Control Coverage and Health Care Reform: FAQ. (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from
Black, S., Devereaux, P., & Salvanes, K. (2004). “Fast times at ridgemont high? The effect of compulsory schooling laws on teenage births.” (Vol. 10911). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Coley, L.R., Chase-Lansdale, L.P (1998). “Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood: Recent Evidence and Future Directions.” American Psychologist, 53, 152-166.
“G-Spot.” (2011). Women's Health Activist , 36 (2), 12.
Know the Facts. (n.d.). Care Net Pregnancy Family Services of Puget Sound. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://carenetps.org/did-you-know/know-the-facts
"Menu." RH Reality Check. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2014.
Prengaman, Kate. "The Land Of Maps." The Land Of Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2014.
Santelli, John S., MD, MPH, Richard Lowry, MD, Nancy D. Brener, PhD, and Leigh Robin, PhD. (2000). "The Association of Sexual Behaviors With Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Race/Ethnicity Among US Adolescents." Web.
Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F., and David W. Hall. (2011). "Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S." Ed. Virginia J. Vitzthum. Print.
“Teen Pregnancy, Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy.” Teen Pregnancy. N.p., n.d Web. 05 April 2014.
The National Campaign | To Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. (n.d.) The National Campaign | To Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://thenationalcampaign.org/
Young, T., Turner, J., Denny, G., Young, M., (2004). “Examining external and internal poverty as antecedents of teen pregnancy.” Journal of Health Behavior, 28, 361-373.
Norway (policy intervention and legislation)
Education system mandates children to attend school through the ninth grade. Data suggests high school drop-out rates strongly correlate to teenage pregnancy.
The system is very supportive of single teenage mothers:
Income support via social security until child is 10 years of age
Pays all educational expenses
Provides subsidized housing and child care
Access to legal abortion during teenage years
Models that, in fact, DO REDUCE the incidence of teenage childbearing ...
are there models that work?
what have we done to reduce
National Campaigns (1997 - 2008)
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-
the nation's largest philanthropy devoted solely to the public's health
1. SUPPORT FOR TEENS DELAYING SEXUAL ACTIVITY
2. PROVIDING TEENS WITH ADEQUATE CONTRACEPTIVE EDUCATION AND SERVICES
**Help of the Media - Messages appeared in newspapers, magazines, TV and Radio
Teen Births fell by one-third to lowest level ever recorded
WHAT HAVE WE DONE TO REDUCE TEEN PREGNANCY? CONT'D
Nurse-Family Partnership (est. 1979)
Registered nurses took preventive health services into the homes of young, low-income pregnant women and first time mothers.
Sought to prevent future pregnancies. ‘Planting the Seeds”
Funded Projects such as:
Drugs, Sex, HIV: Programs Teach At-Risk Urban Girls How to Play it safe
Latina Health Project Offers Outreach, Educational, Clinical and Counseling Activities
“BEST FRIENDS” Program Prevents Risky Behaviors Among Teenage Girls
Will Power/Won’t Power Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program for Girls ages 12 to 14
NATIONAL CAMPAIGN to PREVENT TEEN PREGNANCY
1. Convince national leaders and organizations to take a clear stand against teen pregnancy.
2. Enlist the help of the media in reducing teen pregnancy.
3. Support and Stimulate state and local coalitions to reduce teen pregnancy.
4. Lead a national discussion about the role of religion, culture and public values in reducing teen pregnancy
5. Publish credible, research-based information on effective approaches
** Cuba to lead by example:
Based on class discussion-
Access through universal healthcare
Education plus income equality
Everyone has access to any contraceptive they want, want to keep equal income…rise in women’s participation in the work place…does decrease population growth or birth rates…
What matters is state control, and what they do with power…
• do they make it easy to access contraception on regardless of race and socioeconomic status?
***Abstinence-only sex education is similar to 'Malthusianism' -
the idea that overpopulation causes poverty
promotes abstinence to decrease population