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Modern Land Conservation

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Transcript of Modern Land Conservation

Modern Land Conservation
Educational
-Only 2% of heavy media users reported being happy at school whereas 82% of light users reported being happy at school in the past year

Environ-mental
Purpose
The Way out
-Eventual Results of outdoor education

• Are particularly effective at helping under-resourced, low-income students perform measurably better in school
• Quantitatively increase student motivation and enthusiasm to learn
• Markedly improve classroom behavior with fewer discipline referrals and related problems
• Help students concentrate for longer periods and help mitigate attention deficit problems
• Increase scores on statewide standardized tests in basic skills, reading, science and math.
• Improve performance on college entrance exams.

Health
-Average American Child: 7 hours and 38 minutes per day indoors (53 hrs per week)
The Wilderness Experience
Appalachian Trail
2,000-Milers By Decade
1930s- 5
1940s- 3
1950s- 14
1960s- 37
1970s- 770
1980s- 1,422
1990s- 3,315
2000s- 5,890
2010s- 3,029
Total- 14,485

As of July 2005, 20% of the AT footpath has been assessed, using a random sampling methodology. The extrapolated results indicate that 43% of the trail footpath is in good condition; 32% is in fair condition, and 26% is in poor condition. No parts of the trail inventoried to date were listed as being in serious condition
Nature has a huge impact on how we live our lives. it affects us in many aspects of our life such as how we view things everyday, how well we do in our jobs and schoolwork, and with how we interact with others. this presentation will help portray why it is so important to save any remaining wilderness and to keep all of our current pieces of nature protected.
-Verderber (1986) has shown that the quality
of the view out the window is a significant factor in the
recovery of patients in physical medicine and rehabilitation wards of six hospitals

. Ulrich (1984) demonstrated
that the content of the view is important in hospital
patients' recovery from surgery, with nature content contributing to faster recovery

Self Efficacy- refers to our beliefs about our ability to execute control over our own level of functioning and the events that affect our lives
Studies have shown that efficacy improves immediately after the adventure experiences
Koelser (1994)- found that eficacy was related to outdoor leadership
Negative Impacts
Positive Impacts
Currently there is 250,000 acres of land saved around the Appalachian Trail which is approximately 125000 soccer fields
A 2,180 mile long trail that crosses over 14 states has a mix of positive and negative impacts on the environment around the trail
-Eventual results of increased contact with Nature

Decrease in ADHD
Increase in self-confidence
Decrease in depression and the use of anti depressant drugs
Works Cited
Sites:
http://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/environmental-psychology
http://www.teachgreenpsych.com/environmental-psychology.php
http://www.nwf.org/pdf/Be%20Out%20There/Back%20to%20School%20full%20report.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilderness
http://www.wilderness.net/library/documents/ewert.pdf
http://www.nps.gov/nts/nts_faq.html#7
http://www.americantrails.org/resources/wildlife/Visitor-use-Appalachian-Trail.html
http://www.livescience.com/24756-humans-alter-wildlife-along-appalachian-trail.html
http://www.appalachiantrail.org/docs/default-document-library/atc-volunteer-leadership-handbook-(february-2013).pdf
http://www.nwf.org/pdf/Be%20Out%20There/Back%20to%20School%20full%20report.pdf
http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=outdoor+psychology+wilderness+experience&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C7
http://www.appalachiantrail.org/what-we-do/conservation/land-protection

PDF’s:
http://lawlibrary.unm.edu/nrj/14/2/04_scott_toward.pdf
http://www.psichenatura.it/fileadmin/img/R._Kaplan__S._Kaplan_The_Experience_of_Nature__Introduction_.pdf
https://www.wilderness.net/library/documents/science1999/Volume3/Paxton_3-27.pdf
file:///C:/Users/sheakevin/Documents/32bfe513dd5917a305.pdf
http://www.gronhalsa.se/files/chap_5_springer.pdf

Richard M. Ryan, Netta Weinstein, Jessey Bernstein, Kirk Warren Brown, Louis Mistretta, Marylène Gagné. Vitalizing effects of being outdoors and in nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2010; 30 (2): 159 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.10.009

-Results of Public Trail Crews
Promotes leadership skills
increases contact with nature
healthy activity and plenty of exercise
places kids and adults in a relaxing environment where they can give back to nature
helps reduce erosion and other negative environmental impacts we have on these trails
" our study finds that life's stressful events appear not to cause as much psychological distress in children who live in high-nature conditions compared with children who live in low-nature conditions" Nancy Wells, assistant professor of design and environmental analysis in the New York State College of Human Ecology at Cornell
Yosemite National Park hikers
53,139 in 2010
Yosemite National Park visitors
4 million in 2010
56% of the overnight visitors stay in huts and shelters, 12% camped near shelters, 23% stay at designated campsites or tent sites, and 9% camped elsewhere along the AT (Manning et al, 2000). The 9% of visitors who camped at “bootleg” sites along the Appalachian Trail have the potential to cause the most significant damage to AT resource values. Most shelter sites along the AT have been in existence for decades so their impacts to vegetation and soils associated with use of these established sites are probably well established, and that further incremental impacts are relatively small, whereas new sites cause more harm due to the fact that they are usually set up near vulnerable areas such as


Are particularly effective at helping under-resourced, low-income students perform measurably better in school
• Quantitatively increase student motivation and enthusiasm to learn

Markedly improve classroom behavior with fewer discipline referrals and related problems
• Help students concentrate for longer periods and help mitigate attention deficit problems

Increase scores on statewide standardized tests in basic skills, reading, science and math.
• Improve performance on college entrance exams.
In the spring of 2010, as part of its National Wildlife Week education outreach efforts, the National Wildlife Federation surveyed 1,878 educators online and asked them what they thought about children and the outdoors. They strongly agreed with the following statements:
78% -- Children who spend regular time in unstructured outdoor play are better able to concentrate and perform better in the classroom
82% -- Students need daily unstructured outdoor time as a counterbalance to the significant time spent indoors in front of electronic media
75% -- Students who spend regular time outdoors tend to be more creative and better able to problem solve in the classroom
Media Use and Grades
Heavy Media Users
- 47% fair/poor grades, 51% good grades
Moderate Media Users
- 31% fair/poor grades, 65% good grades, 3% school doesn't use grades
Light Media Users
- 23% fair/poor grades, 66% good grades, 10% school doesn't use grades
-Kaiser Family Foundation, Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-olds, January 2010
The Indoor Generation
-Causes of Lack of Interest in the Outdoors in Children
Attractiveness and accessibility of electronic media
Increased parental concern about children playing unattended outdoors and possibly accidental injuries or coming to harm from strangers
-Societal Casualties due to Indoor Culture
increased child obesity, diabetes, and asthma
reduced social awareness and emotional intelligence
lack of a prolonged attention span
more aggressive behavior-------->5 Year olds playing Call of Duty
Poor Vision and low vitamin D levels
Three to five year shorter life span due to indoor isolation

Rare/Endangered Species
-2,200 types of rare plants and animal species can be found
How they are protected
-Appalachian Trail Conservancy (ATC) enlists volunteers to track and monitor them
- the most vulnerable are either
fenced in from deer browsing
invasive species are eradicated from surrounding area
or trail is relocated away from species
Centers for Disease Control( CDC) reports that the number of overweight adult americans increased over 60% between 1991 to 2000 (this is not the only factor)
"Nature is fuel for the soul, " says Richard Ryan, lead author and a professor of psychology at the University of Rochester. "Often when we feel depleted we reach for a cup of coffee, but research suggests a better way to get energized is to connect with nature,"
"Research has shown that people with a greater sense of vitality don't just have more energy for things they want to do, they are also more resilient to physical illnesses. One of the pathways to health may be to spend more time in natural settings,"
90 percent of people report increased energy when placed in outdoor activities
research has shown that people on wilderness excursions report feeling more alive and that just recalling outdoor experiences increases feelings of happiness and health
Richard M. Ryan, Netta Weinstein, Jessey Bernstein, Kirk Warren Brown, Louis Mistretta, Marylène Gagné. Vitalizing effects of being outdoors and in nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2010; 30 (2): 159 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.10.009
Environmental Affects on Student Achievement

SEER Study
Education curriculum increased academic performance.
• 76% language arts

63% Math
• 64% Science

73% in Social Studies
• 77% in attendance for taking assessments

Effects of Environmental Education on Student Achievement G.H.Hoody, Lieberman, 2000

Examples of Problems from U.S. Geologic Survey Recreation Ecologist Jeff Marion (Marion & Leung 2001) taken along the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park
•Soil erosion: (low: 1 – 2 ft.; moderate: 2.1 – 3 ft.; severe: 3 ft or greater)
• Multiple tread (more than one definable tread)
• Excessive root exposure
• Excessive width (3 – 6 ft., greater than 6 ft.)
• Wet or muddy soils (more than half the tread width)
• Standing water on treadway

“Unsurfaced trail treads are susceptible to a variety of trail impacts. Common impacts include vegetation loss and compositional changes, soil compaction, erosion, and muddiness, exposure of plant roots, trail-widening, and the proliferation of visitor-created side trails. Trails, and the presence of visitors, also impact wildlife, fragment wildlife habitat, and cause avoidance behavior in some animals and attraction behavior in others to obtain human food” (Marion & Leung, 2001)

Rare/Endangered Species:
Northern Raven
Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel
Bicknell's Thrush
Zig-Zag Salamander
Water Shrew
Squawfoot Mussel
Bandura (1998)- self-efficacy is
defined as a belief in one’s ability to organize and execute the course of
action required to attain a given outcome
Journal of Environmental Psychology
American Institutes of Research. (2005). Effects of Outdoor Education Programs for Children in California. Sacramento. Retrieved March 15, 2005.
• Children who attended outdoor school significantly raised their science scores by 3 points (27 percent), as measured by a pre- and post-survey administered immediately upon their return to school.
• The increase in science knowledge was maintained six to ten weeks following program participation, with no significant loss in science scores.
• Participation in the outdoor schools was associated with higher ratings for conflict resolution skills and cooperation (longer-term student assessments) and more positive environmental behaviors (parents' reports).
• According to teachers' ratings, the children who attended the outdoor program received significantly higher
ratings in self-esteem, conflict resolution, relationship with peers, problem solving, motivation to learn, and behavior in class.
This study assessed student performance in 40 schools that were already implementing a program to integrate environmental education
SEER’s California study was a controlled examination that compared eight paired sets of student classes. One part of each set was exposed to the environment as an integrating context for learning (EIC) program and the other part did not have such a program. In two cases, the paired classes came from the same school. In the other six cases, they came from
different, neighboring schools with closely matched demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Data were collected from standardized test scores, site visits, teacher surveys, and interviews
A History of the Trail
The idea of the trail was thought up in 1921 by Benton MacKaye, an American forester
The first section of trail was opened up on October 7, 1923
Myron Avery became the first to hike the trail from end to end in 1936
Benton and Avery
In October 1936 Benton set up a two-day Appalachian Trail Conference which resulted in the formation of the Appalachian Trail Conference
Psychology
Increased
Biodiversity
- the variety of plants and animals living in a specific region or area
WHY
it is important- increased Biodiversity
ensures natural sustainability for all life forms
allows ecosystems to better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters
http://www.appalachiantrail.org/what-we-do/trail-management-support/trail-crews
Full transcript