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Sociology Project

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Vinayaka Thompson

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Sociology Project

Science and Religion The Effects of Socialization Presentation by: David Catherall
Matthias Guenther
Vinayaka Thompson What is science? Science is classified as a study or branch of knowledge that gathers and examines factual information for the purpose of explaining and predicting events or physical formations.

Science uses the scientific method to systematically arrange the facts and truths it gathers to discover universal laws. What is religion? Religion is a belief system, the purpose of which is to explain the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe. Unlike science, it is based on faith, but for many people this can be just as powerful as fact.

However, religion will typically also contain a set of standards and practices, which science does not offer. What's the problem? For centuries, science and religion have been thought of as opposing forces that are always in conflict. However, this is not actually what is going on. With only a few overly-popular exceptions, science can go hand-in-hand with religion just fine. What does the research say? Theories Harmony theory: Harmony theory is the theory that science and religion are at peace. Sure, there may be flare ups every so often, but all in all, they can coexist. From person to person the way they see this varies, and can be either that science and religion are different and cannot be compared and/or impede on each other, or that science and religion can be combined to form a better understanding of everything. What does the research say? Theories Conflict theory: Conflict theory states that science and religion are at odds. They cannot coexist because they are two arguing versions of the same thing. Conflict theory typically leans toward the side of science, because those who believe it are more inclined to facts over faith. What does the research say? Differences and similarities Differences: Science is based on facts, religion is based on faith.
Science can be proven and disproven, religion can be neither.
Science continually changes as new theories are created and old ones revised, while some religions remain as they were long ago.
Unlike science, religion provides a set of standards and morals. What does the research say? Differences and similarities Similarities: Both science and religion have the purpose of explanation, and to give a larger understanding of the universe.
Just as science evolves and changes, some religions adjust and change as new information is available.
They both depend on different interpretations of the available information, which is what leads to the different religions, sects, and scientific theories. If they are similar,
what started the conflict? There is no one reason as to why religion and science don't get along in popular culture. It has probably been the case since the first differences were found, and people started to doubt. The different mindsets and the natural desire to be better than others likely lead to the fundemental arguments that exist to this day. But it's not
what it seems... Research shows that an astounding 48% of scientists have a religious affiliation. This suggests that the rumors are not (entirely) true, and that religion does not discourage thinking as it is blamed for. I n t r o d u c t i o n To determine which of these theories was most pertinent, we conducted a survey on 119 high school students. To strengthen our findings, we also recorded valuable observations. However, since the data collected was mainly from SST, the numbers favor science moreso than they would if the survey was given to the general population The Results The Experiment The Background The Conclusions The surveys asked a number of questions about upbringing, religious background, interest in science and other such things. The resulting data were compiled into a table and used to create charts to determine whether or not there were correlations between various variables. Observations say that in popular culture, science and religion cannot get along.
However, the majority of the data support the harmony theory.
The correlations show that religious people are less scientific.
But, more than half of the religious people believe in the Big Bang and in Creation, among other beliefs.
On top of that, many of the graphs that could have shown correlations in support of the conflict theory failed to do so.
We were incorrect to think that SST would contain mostly atheists, but our data shows that you can be both scientific and religious.
Though it is not so, the world seems to think and act as though science and religion can never get along
But behind the scenes they are at peace.
We may never know why, but the only logical reason is because people naturally want to be better than others.
Now the question is, if many people believe both in science and religion, why is conflict so common?
Not to be continued... We gave it to Mrs. Wise, who then administered it to her students. The Plan Thanks for your time The End We planned to send our surveys to as many different types of schools in the area as possible. About half declined, and those that were interested were unable to participate. We compiled the data into a spreadsheet for analysis. Any questions? We then collected the
surveys the day after, so she was able to give it to all her classes. X Atheists tend to have better grades in science classes than religious people. Believers in a supreme being tend to be slightly less interested in science. 1.11 1.12 1.13
1.21 1.22
1.3
1.41 1.42
1.51 1.52
1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 For the most part, there is a correlation showing high parental influence.


However, a surprisingly large number of people marked little or no influence from their parents. There was very little difference in upbringing between people with and without at least one parent in a science-based profession. The only significant difference in science interest among different political groups was that respondents who marked "other" tended to be less interested in science. Percent belief in Creation starts high and decreases as secularity increases, while percent belief in the Big Bang increases. This pattern supports the conflict theory, however if you notice, more than 50% of the religious people also believe in the Big Bang (along with Creation). The bubble size represents the number of respondents who marked that particular pair of answers.

One might expect that for the general population, the correlation would lie along the first line.

However, SST being a science-based school, the only visible correlation appears to be along the second line, suggesting that they are still inversely related, but this population is indeed biased and so the line shifts in the direction of higher science interest. Although both imperfect and incomplete, there appears to be a correlation between parental influence and average scientific interest. This can be explained by the fact that this graph only takes into account religious respondents. This chart is also incomplete, but it shows a much more precise relationship between parental influence and average religious activity. Again, this only takes into account religious respondents. Combined with the information from the previous graph, it makes more sense. Those that have more parental influence (to be religious) have higher religious activity, and thus typically have less interest in science. Harmony Theory Conflict Theory In the end... Belief in evolution goes hand-in-hand with belief in the Big Bang. Bucky, P. A., Einstein, A., & Weakland, A. G. (1992). N/A. The private Albert Einstein (pp. 85, 86, 87). Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel.

Drees, W. B. (2010). 'Religion and Science' in multiple contexts. In Religion and Science in Context. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=5oFLCV7usKwC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=religion+vs+science&ots=X752JPklwf&sig=udMW2Ik0z8oDWP6XZM7CU9dhJvc#v=onepage&q&f=false

Einstein, A. (1930, November 9). Religion and Science. New York Times Magazine.

Einstein, A. (1950). Einstein's Ideas and Opinions. New York, NY: New York: Philosophical Library.

Hewer, D. (n.d.). Science & Religion: Competitors or Companions? Retrieved from Power to Change website: http://powertochange.com/discover/world/science-religion/

Moñivas, J. R. (2007, March). Science and Religion in the Sociology of Émile Durkheim.European Journal of Science and Theology, 3(1), 30. Retrieved from http://www.ejst.tuiasi.ro/Files/09/17-30Romero.pdf

Normandin, R. (2012, May 11). Science and religion are complements. The Tech, Retrieved from http://tech.mit.edu/V132/N25/normandin.html

Pollack, D. (Ed.).The Role of Religion in Modern Societies (p. 279). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=mW79E63oUg0C&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=religion+vs+science&ots=GpjzSDTLQV&sig=cJLF02sHDzToQe1lOidYTKKNXHA#v=onepage&q=religion%20vs%20science&f=false

Science and religion: Reconcilable differences. (n.d.). Retrieved from University of California, Berkeley website: http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/science_religion

Science, Philosophy and Religion, A Symposium. (1941). Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life, Inc.

Wilber, K. (1998). The Marriage of Sense and Soul. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=uQGmVyPN6rUC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Astley, R. P. (Producer), & Aitken, M. J. (Director). (1987). Never Gonna Give You Up [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=dQw4w9WgXcQ How we analyzed the data Creating charts of variables that might have had a correlation.
Sorting the data by different variables searching for abonormally high numbers of certain values within different boundaries. Then we would make a graph. The Observations Most people in the surveyed population (SST) do not make mention of any religion, or seem to defend it when it is brought up.
In modern society, religion is often pounded on by those who may doubt it (or not).
Religion is usually treated as inferior to science because it “has no facts.”
Those who are religious may argue intensely with those that are not.
Those who are religious yet scientific typically are less religious than those who are not as interested in science. People who are religious are typically taunted for the following reasons:
Many believe religion is conformist
Many believe that religion discourages free thinking.
Many believe that religion has no facts
Some believe religion is for the less-intelligent, which goes along with the supposed discouragement of free thinking. Even though religion is said not not be “factual,” there have been many events in history and things found in archeological sites that support religion.
There are many interpretations over the same thing, which leads to arguments even among those who are religious.
Religious people tend to vehemently argue with scientific-minded people on topics that challenge their beliefs. Some main arguments include, but are not limited to, the Big Bang vs Creation, life after death vs no life after death, God vs no God, etc.
While some religions have not changed for a long time, others do change and adapt as new information becomes available which makes some rumors partly erroneous.
Many of those arguing over which is correct are those who like to feel superior. Some religious people are offended by science taught in schools.
There have long been arguments over what theories should be taught in schools, leading to the Flying Spaghetti Monster argument (e.g. “I believe that the Flying Spaghetti Monster created the world, so that should be treated as a valid scientific theory and be taught in schools”).
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