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nur alyani mohd rodzi

on 15 October 2014

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712 – 1778)
Educational Ideas of Rousseau
Rousseau conveyed his educational philosophy through his novel, Emile.
Emile was the story of a boy’s education from infancy to adulthood.
He against child depravity doctrine and book dominated education but believed that children’s instincts and needs are naturally good.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
Educational ideas of Pestalozzi
Develop schools:
Like loving families
Nurture children’s development
Agreed with Rousseau
Human are naturally good but spoiled by corrupt society
Traditional schools followed dull routines (memorization and recitation)
Educational reform could improve society


He emphasized the stages of human development.
Rousseau identified five development stages :
Infancy – (birth to age five)
Childhood – (ages five to twelve)
Boyhood – (ages twelve to fifteen)
Adolescence – (ages fifteen to eighteen)
Youth – (ages eighteen to twenty)

Rousseau was suspicious of schools, he believed taught children to conform to society’s artificial rules rather than live according to nature.
Rousseau highlighted key ideas
Childhood is the natural foundation for future human growth and development
Children’s natural interests and instincts will lead to a more thorough exploration of the environment
Human beings, in their life cycles, go through necessary stages of development
Adult coercion negatively impacts children’s development.

Coincided with early industrial revolution in Europe and America
Factory-made products replaced home handicrafts
Changed family life
Women and children entered work force
Concerned impact of economic changed on families and children
Believed that schools if properly organized could become centers of effective learning
Readopted Rousseau’s single- child tutorial method into simultaneous group instruction

Principles of teaching and learning
General Method
Take place before more specific instruction occurred
Designed to create permissive and emotionally healthy homelike learning environment
Required teachers:
Emotionally secure themselves
Could gain students’ trust
Nurture their self-esteem
Special Method
Object lesson
Followed Rousseau stressed direct sensory learning
Children studied common objects in environment and other objects encountered in daily experience
Students moved gradually from object lessons to drawing, writing, reading, counting, adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing
First writing exercise consisted drawing lessons
Developed children’s motor coordination and hand muscles
Prepared them for writing
Education and schooling
Naturalistic Schooling
Based learning on natural principles and stressed on importance of human emotions
Used group instruction
Defined “knowing” as understanding nature, its patterns and its laws
Stressed empirical, or sensory, learning
children learn about environment by carefully observing natural phenomena
Influence on educational practices today
Object lessons were introduced into American elementary-school curriculum(19th century)
Having students manipulate objects in environment was a forerunner of process-based learning
Education should be directed to mind and emotion
Encourage both cognitive and affective learning
Emotional security necessary precondition for skills
Subject learning strongly parallel the contemporary emphasis on supportive home-school partnership.
A German professor of philosophy and psychology
History and literature as medium to construct networks of ideas in students’ minds
Principles of Teaching & Learning
Education & Schooling
Influence on Educational Practices Today
Wide-acceptance in teacher-education programs; United States and other countries, Japan.
Trained to systematically organize instruction
Implication of Herbart’s method :
Clearly identified skills & concepts they plan to introduce to students
Plan organized & unambiguous lessons
Test students to verify they comprehension & application of the skills & concepts presented to them
Friedrich Froebel
Froebel created the kindergarten or children’s garden. He based his educational philosophy on a belief in a spirituality that resides at the core of all human beings.
The kindergarten was designed as a place to nurture a child’s spirituality. Storytelling and singing had an important place in the kindergarten program.
Principle of teaching and learning
Education and schooling
Froebel believed the kindergarten teacher’s personality to be a paramount importance.
Per service experiences should help teachers become sensitive to children’s needs and give them the knowledge and skills required
Encourage kindergarten teacher to resist contemporary pressure to introduce academic subjects in kindergarten as premature pressure
Influence on educational practices today
Kindergarten grew on international movement
It also became part of American school system
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