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The Civil War
Transcript of The Civil War
McDowell met P.G.T. Beauregard and his
Confederate troops in battle at Manassas. Union forces advanced on the Western frontier, taking Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River. The forts defended Nashville and guarded crucial waterways that linked Tennessee and Kentucky to the Mississippi Valley. After attacking Vicksburg, Grant repelled a surprise Confederate attack at Shiloh Church.
He pushed them back to Corinth, Mississippi. Republicans The Republican party nominated Abraham
Lincoln. He won with 40% of the popular
vote. The reality of a Republican president,
with an inevitable agenda of eventually
abolishing slavery, scared the South into
secession one month later. Northern Democrats Constitutional Union The Constitutional Union party, made up primarily of Whigs, nominated John Bell. Fort Sumter Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy, demanded that Anderson evacuate on April 10. Anderson refused and on April 12, Confederates opened fire. Anderson surrendered. When news reached Lincoln, he called on the states in the Upper South to send troops. They refused and Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas seceded. The Union lost 1/3 of its troops. North and South became even more distinct. First Bull Run The Southern victory showed the North that the war would take longer than expected. It also raised Southern morale and established the legendary status of Stonewall Jackson. Forts Henry and Donelson When Grant took the fort, he also cut off the path between Virginia and the Carolinas. It was the permanent removal of the Confederate troops from the West. Shiloh More Americans died at Shiloh than all the nation's wars up to that point. Each side lost over 10,000 men. As soldiers saw the carnage and terrible injuries, they began to want peace more and more. Religion in camps increased and commanders became reluctant to pursue retreating armies. Southern Conscription Battle of New Orleans April 24, 1862 Union Admiral David G. Farragut captured the Confederate-controlled port city of New Orleans. It opened 200 miles of the Mississippi to the Union and highlighted the thinness of Confederate troops. Seven Days' Battles June 25-July 1, 1862 General George McClellan and his Army of the Potomac clashed with General Joseph E. Johnston's Confederate troops on the way to Richmond in May. General Robert E. Lee replaced the wounded Johnston and attacked McClellan on June 25. In a week of fighting, over 30,000 men died. McClellan technically won the battle but withdrew from the Peninsula because the gore shocked him. Lee lost 1/4 of his men but discovered an effective war strategy that he perfected throughout the course of the war. He saved Richmond and his reputation of invincibility was created. Second Bull Run August 29-30, 1862 The Confederate army defeated the Federal Army, saving Richmond from invasion and adding to General Lee's invincible reputation. Southern morale increased. Antietam September 17, 1862 Lee camped at Frederick, Maryland, convinced the Union's armies would not attack. The Union, however, found a copy of Lee's military orders and planned an attack. General McClellan took too long to attack and Lee retreated to Sharpsburg, Maryland, along Antietam Creek. It was the single bloodiest day in American history. 2,100 Federal soldiers and 2,700 Confederate soldiers died, with 18,500 wounded on both sides. The battle ended in a tactical draw, which kept Lee from attacking Northern institutions. Britain and France abandoned plans to recognize the Confederacy as a separate country and Lincoln got the victory he needed to announce his plan to abolish slavery. Emancipation Proclamation September 22, 1862 Radical Republicans pressured Lincoln to abolish slavery immediately. Secretary of State William Seward, however, advised Lincoln to wait for a battlefield victory. Lincoln used Antietam as the victory. The Emancipation Proclamation, to take effect on January 1, 1863, would free all slaves in rebelling states. Union-loyal states were exempted. Lincoln and the Union were now synonymous with freedom, waging a holy war against the South. The Republican party unified behind Lincoln. Southern slaves fled to the Union and joined the army, earning rare praise from Northern whites. Fredericksburg December 13, 1862 General Ambrose E. Burnside led the Union against the Confederate army in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Burnside's foolish battle plan led to heavy Union casualties. The Confederacy's win revived Southern morale. Burnside was replaced with General Joseph Hooker on December 13, 1862. Chancellorsville May 1-3, 1863 Lee, outnumbered 2:1, defeated Major General Joseph Hooker. The Confederates suffered 13,000 casualties, including Stonewall Jackson. Afterwards, Lee headed North. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson was Lee's right hand man. They won a great deal of unlikely battles together. During the battle at Chancellorsville, Jackson was mistakenly shot by fellow Confederate soldiers on his way back from a recoinnoitering mission. Northern Conscription March, 1863 The first federal conscription law passed in 1863. Violent conflicts erupted between citizens and federal officials over the draft. Gettysburg July 1, 1863 Lincoln sent the Federal Army after Lee, led by the newly appointed General George Gordon Meade. On the first few days of battle, the Confederates pushed the Union back along Cemetary Ridge. On July 3rd, Lee erred in thinking the middle of Meade's line was weak and sent in General George Pickett. Pickett's soldiers were mowed down in the bloodiest battle of the war. The Union lost 23,000 soldiers and the Confederacy lost 28,000 soldiers. Both armies were depleted and losing morale, especially in the South. Vicksburg July 4, 1863 Grant's 20,000 Union troops crossed the Mississippi from Louisiana to Vicksburg, captured the state capital of Jackson, Mississippi, then set siege to Vicksburg from May 22-July 4. Vicksburg, the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi, was surrendered to Grant on July 4. The capture of Vicksburg was a blow to the Southern economy and morale. It led the way to the Union's capture of Georgia and closed the South's port in Mississippi. The Draft Riots July 13-18, 1863 In response to Conscription in the North, an Irish mob ravaged New York City. They burned the federal marshal's headquarters, fought police, plundered horses, lynched black men, and burned the Colored Orphan Asylum. Over 100 people died. The Draft Riots showed that many people weren't willing to fight. They were especially infuriated with the idea that only the rich could afford to be exempted. The Riots highlighted problems between different races and classes. Gettysburg Address November 18, 1863 Lincoln consecrated the battlefield of Gettysburg to a renewal of the nation's founding ideals. He wanted to ensure that the men who lost their lives had not died in vain; the Union was to be protected at all costs. The Address returned some Southerners to the Union. It also reminded Federal troops that they fought to preserve America. The Wilderness May 5, 1864 Generals Grant and George Meade began their campaign against Lee, crossing the Rapidan River near Fredericksburg, Virginia, and marching to the Wilderness, an undeveloped area. Lee's 60,000 man army attacked the 118,000 man Army of the Potomac in the Battle of the Wilderness on May 5. Most fighting involved hand-to-hand combat. 18,000 Federal soldiers and 10,000 Confederates died. Grant pushed on to lose 55,000 men in under a month, undermining Northern support for Grant and increasing the desire for peace. The Election of 1864 November 6, 1860 Democrats Democrats nominated George B. McClellan, former Union army commander, as a sort of peace treaty. Since Northern morale was dropping, they figured they had a chance. Republicans Following the Union's capture of Atlanta, morale increased and Lincoln won 55% of the popular vote. The Republicans retained control of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Lincoln's victory reinforced his commitment to emancipation. A 13th Amendment that outlawed slavery nationwide was proposed, passed Congress, and added in 1865. November 8, 1864 Sherman's March to the Sea November 14, 1864 General William Sherman led 60,000 Federal troops on a path of destruction through the South. There was little resistance, which some claimed meant that people were ready for the war to end. On December 22, 1864, Sherman took Savannah. In February, 1865, he took South Carolina, where the war had started. They burned Columbia, the capital, and allowed black troops to be the first to enter Charleston. The march ended in Goldsboro, North Carolina, in March 1865. The army traveled 425 miles. The desperate Confederate Congress passed a bill on March 13, 1865 to allow slaves to enlist in the army. The war ended before it went into effect. Sherman's March to the Sea destroyed the South and their chances at winning the war. It was the reason the vast Reconstruction was necessary. Surrender at Appomattox Court House April 9, 1865 Lee, on a run to defend Richmond, detoured westward for supplies. He planned to meet up with Johnston's army in North Carolina. Grant cut Lee off at Appomattox Court House on April 7. Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9. Grant let Lee's men go home untouched because he hated to see such a mighty foe brought down so low. Lee's surrender brought with it the vast majority of Southern chances of winning the war. Assassination of Lincoln April 14, 1865 Three days after Lincoln's April 11th speech on his plans to reconstruct the South, John Wilkes Booth assassinated the President. Booth was dissatisfied with the prospect of citizenship for slaves. Some Southerners were happy at the death of their greatest enemy; others recognized that he was reducing the influential demands of Radical Republicans, who were ready to annihilate the South and their way of life. The North grieved. The End of the War July 2, 1865 Grant's appointment as commander of all Federal armies in March, 1864, coordinated the Union's troops and waged nonstop warfare against the Confederate troops. After General Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865, General Johnston surrendered as well. On May 10, the Union captured Confederate President Jefferson Davis. The war ended two weeks after the capture of Davis, with the surrender of General Kirby Smith. His was the final Confederate army in America, officially ending the war. The Union's capital rejoiced while the South lamented its losses. According to new research, an estimated 750,000 Americans died in the Civil War. Over 40% were never identified. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas. http://blueandgraytrail.com/image/stonewalljackson.jpg http://www.lincolndouglasquincydebate.com/assets/images/stephen-a-douglas.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b8/John_C_Breckinridge-04775-restored.jpg/220px-John_C_Breckinridge-04775-restored.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/44/Abraham_Lincoln_head_on_shoulders_photo_portrait.jpg/365px-Abraham_Lincoln_head_on_shoulders_photo_portrait.jpg http://www.old-picture.com/civil-war/pictures/Fort-Sumter-Wall.jpg http://lcweb2.loc.gov/gmd/gmd396/g3964/g3964f/cw0409100.gif http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/hh/10/images/hh10a1.jpg http://www.lib.unc.edu/blogs/civilwar/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/18630213_001_NCC_Cb970-74_M14a.jpg http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h42000/h42246.jpg http://www.civilwaracademy.com/images/Robert-E-Lee.jpg http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1862/september/second-battle-bull-run-1500.jpg http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/Antietam/dead-soldier-antietam.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/Emancipation_proclamation_typeset_signed.jpg http://www.old-picture.com/civil-war/pictures/Burnside-Ambrose-Burnside.jpg http://www.civilwar.org/education/assets/images/meade_web_1.jpg http://www.washingtonpost.com/rf/image_606w/2010-2019/WashingtonPost/2013/04/29/Style/Advance/Images/1863%20draft%20riot-1173.jpg http://www.illinoishistory.gov/images/dark_address_01.jpg http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1864/june/battle-wilderness.jpg http://www.old-picture.com/civil-war/pictures/General-William-Sherman.jpg http://www.ducksters.com/history/shermans_march_to_the_sea_map.png http://www.civilwar.org/photos/galleries/appomattox-court-house/images/lees-surrender.jpg http://www.lincolnlogcabin.org/education-kits/Abraham-Lincoln-Lesson-Plans/PrimarySources/Lesson-7/74.jpg http://thecivilwarproject.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/davis1855to1865.jpg Southern Democrats Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckinridge. http://www.freeinfosociety.com/media/images/5325.jpg http://www.history.com/images/media/slideshow/civil-war-union-military-leaders/ulysses-grant.jpg http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m8ea30qLV71qcf88p.jpg http://www.old-picture.com/civil-war/pictures/Burnside-Ambrose-Burnside.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8c/John-bell-brady-handy-cropped.jpg/200px-John-bell-brady-handy-cropped.jpg