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Erin Landis

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of Architecture

Notre Dame de Paris, Paris. 1163-1345. André Vingt-Trois
What is Architecture?
Architecture is the art of designing or creating buildings.
Empire State Building. New York City, 1928-1931. Shreve, Lamb & Harmon
Is Architecture, Art?
Since the ancient times, architecture has been considered art, because of three reasons:
1. Most Architecture are made for public use. As well as functionality, beauty is important, meaning to inspire the public



2. Most works of architecture were public displays for fine art paintings, sculptures, stain glass...etc
3. Architecture, went hand in hand in art movements
Beginning of Architecture
Since the beginning of civilization architectures main purposes where to:

1) to provide security from the natural elements
2. To show power
3. To please the gods
The History of Architecture
Most famously seen in the pyramids of Giza. These underground tombs not architecturally complex in design. Using posts and pillars, rather than arches.
Egyptian work in stone influenced Greek architecture.
The Egyptians used sun-dried mud brick, later they started using stone in their buildings
Egyptian architecture
The Egyptian civilization (3100-30 BCE) brought the first true architectural design. The ancient egyptians designed massive burial chambers.

Greek Architecture

Roman Architecture
The Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion, Athens, 421–407 BC
Byzantine architecture
Renaissance Architecture
Rococo Architecture
Neoclassical architecture
20th century Architecture
Eastern World Architecture
Architecture of Ancient Greece was divided into three eras: the Archaic Period (600-500 BCE), the Classical Period (c.500-323 BCE) and the Hellenistic Period (c.323-27 BCE)
The Greeks traditional style of fluted columns and shaped tops “capitals” supporting beams changed the world of architecture.
The greeks inspired by Egyptian stone buildings, the Greeks replaced the wooden structures with stone structures
They used limestone and marble columns and walls, while terracotta was used for roof tiles. Most decoration was done in bronze

The Parthenon, Athens. 447-432 BCE
Romans architecture reflected the demands of the Roman Empire. The Roman architecture chartered to increased population, creating public buildings, drainage systems, bridges. All while showing the grand power of the empire.
Roman architecture advanced in design and materials from it’s Greek processors. Romans developed arches and roof domes. Arches improved the efficiency and capability of bridges
Domed roofs allowed larger areas covered.
The Romans invented of concrete. Creating exceptionally strong structures compared to stone.

Byzantine architecture (330-554 CE) continued the tradition of Roman architecture, constructing churches and religious buildings.
During Byzantine era, larger and more magnificent domes, were created to support larger buildings.

Gothic Architecture
Gothic architecture style is known the use of pointed arches, thinner walls, ribbed vaults, usually including huge stained glass windows and elaborate tracery.

Gothic Architecture surpassing Romanesque, This type of Architecture was highly promoted by the church. In Gothic Architecture, more vaulted higher arches were created.
Romanesque Architecture
Renaissance architecture (1400-1620) was rediscovery of architectural styles and theories of Ancient Rome and Greece. Roman designs, ideal building proportions from mathematical and geometrical principles were rediscovered to use in modern buildings.
Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. 1506-1626.
Renaissance buildings were modeled after architecture of the Greeks and Romans, but gave modern features of Byzantine and Gothic invention, like complex domes and towers. In addition adding modern mosaics and stained glass, and murals.

The Rococo architecture movement (1715-1789) focused more on interior design. Rococo architects - created decorated rooms, whose walls, murals, tapestries, furniture, mirrors, porcelain, silks and other embellishments were done in complete decoration. Most of this work was done in pastels.

Neoclassical architecture (1640-1850) returned to the classical architecture of Greek and Roman Antiquity. This style used all the engineering advances and new materials of the era

20th century architecture has been dominated by new buildings, ideas inventions, technologies. 20th century is nothing of like the past.
Famous Architects
Michelangelo was a master architect. Michelangelo helped designed radical principles to his design of the Laurentian Library and the dome St. Peter's Basilica

Louis Henry Sullivan
Louis Henry Sullivan was the first man to design skyscrapers. He built the 16-story Guaranty Building in Buffalo, built in 1894. Frank Lloyd Wright worked under Sullivan.
Louis Henry Sullivan, (Prudential Building), Guaranty Building, Buffalo, 1896
Antoni Gaudi
Antoni Gaudi was a spanish artist in the 19th-20th centruy. His neo-gothic/surrealism style. He used curves and bright vibrant colors in his work.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was a 20th century architect. He deigned prairie style homes, using horizontal lines in his work. His promoted the idea of organic architecture, where you incorporate the surrounding natural environment into the building.
21st Century Architecture
21st Architecture is very modernistic. It uses many shapes, almost a geometric look.
Architecture is all about the viewer. The viewer perspective of a buildings. It's about have appreciation for the work done in the buildings.
Terms to know

Arch: A curved or pointed structural element that is supported at its sides.

Column: A supporting pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital on top of the shaft.

Cupola: A small dome

Facade: An exterior wall, or face, of a building.

Fluting: Shallow, vertical grooves of a column or pilaster.

Order: A classical style of Architecture used in Ancient Greece

Pagoda: A tiered tower with multiple roof layers, constructed about a center.

Pillar: A structural support

Websites and Books
"HowStuffWorks "10 Most Famous
Architects Who Ever Lived"." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://home.howstuffworks.com/home-improvement/construction/planning/10-most-famous-architects.htm>.

ARCHITECTURE. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=1511&HistoryID=ab27>rack=pthc>.

"History of Architecture (3,000 BCE - present)
Evolution of Building Design." Architecture, History: Evolution of Building Design. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ART, n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/architecture-history.htm#roman>.

Stevenson, Neil. Architecture. New York: DK Pub., 1997. Print.
"The 21 Greatest Buildings of the 21st Century - Gear Patrol." Gear Patrol. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://gearpatrol.com/2013/11/14/twenty-one-coolest-buildings-twenty-first-century/>.
Chrysler Buliding, New York. 1928-1930. William Van Allen
Ankor Wat, Cambodia. 12th century
Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. 1473-1481. Baccio Pontelli,
Palace of Versailles, France.
Chichen Itza, Mexico.

Petra, Jordan. 390 BCE
Forbiddden City, Beijing China. 1403 0r 1420
Precinct of Amun-Re, Egypt.
Abu Simbel temple, Egypt. 1264 BCE
Precinct of Amun-Re, Egypt.
Pyraminds of Giza, El Giza, Egypt.
Temple of Aphaea, Aigina,Greece. 500BCE
Colosseum, Rome. 70-80
Roman Forum, Rome
Dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. 4th century
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. 537-1453
St, Mark's Basiclica, Venice. 1084-1184
Piazza dei Miracoli, Pisa Italy. 1092
Reims Cathedral, Reims France. 1211.
Interior of Reims Cathedral, Reims France
Florence cathedral, Florence Italy.
White House, Washington D.C. 1792-1800. James Hoban
Sydney Opera House, Sydney Australia. 1958-1973. Jorn Utzon
Empire State Building. New York City, 1928-1931. Shreve, Lamb & Harmon
Villa Savoye, France. 1929-1931. Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret
TaJ Mahal, Agra India. 1648. Ustad Ahmad Lahouri, Ustad Isa
Temple of Heaven, China
Potala Palace, Tibet/China. 637
Laurentian Library, Florence Italy. 1525-1573
Sagrada Família, Barcelona Spain. 1883-present
Park Güell, Barcelona, Spain. 1914
Falllingwater, Mill Run, Pennsylvania 1936-1939
Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles. 1999-2003
Gardens by the Bay, Marina Bay, Singapore. 2012
By: Erin Landis
"Glossary of Architectural Terms." Trust for
Architectural Easements. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://architecturaltrust.org/outreach/education/glossary-of-architectural-terms/>.
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