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Architecture

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Erin Landis

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of Architecture

Architecture
Notre Dame de Paris, Paris. 1163-1345. André Vingt-Trois
What is Architecture?
Architecture is the art of designing or creating buildings.
Empire State Building. New York City, 1928-1931. Shreve, Lamb & Harmon
Is Architecture, Art?
Since the ancient times, architecture has been considered art, because of three reasons:
1. Most Architecture are made for public use. As well as functionality, beauty is important, meaning to inspire the public
Pictures

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angkor_Wat>.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinkaku-ji>.

2. Most works of architecture were public displays for fine art paintings, sculptures, stain glass...etc
3. Architecture, went hand in hand in art movements
Beginning of Architecture
Since the beginning of civilization architectures main purposes where to:

1) to provide security from the natural elements
2. To show power
3. To please the gods
http://theplanetd.com/petra-jordan-the-lost-city-by-day-photography/
http://www.ancient-egypt.info/2012/09/architecture-in-ancient-egypt.html
http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/architecture/examples.htm
The History of Architecture
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/2228807/Palace-of-Versailles-golden-gate-restored.html
Most famously seen in the pyramids of Giza. These underground tombs not architecturally complex in design. Using posts and pillars, rather than arches.
Egyptian work in stone influenced Greek architecture.
The Egyptians used sun-dried mud brick, later they started using stone in their buildings
Egyptian architecture
http://www.archicentral.com/egyptian-architecture-27944/
http://www.hdwallpapers.in/pyramids_of_giza_egypt-wallpapers.html
The Egyptian civilization (3100-30 BCE) brought the first true architectural design. The ancient egyptians designed massive burial chambers.

Greek Architecture
http://amolife.com/en/project/ancient-egypt/

Roman Architecture
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caryatid
The Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion, Athens, 421–407 BC
http://dev.chezmatthi.eu/naive/picture.php?/50
Byzantine architecture
http://www.teslasociety.com/hagiasophia.htm
http://designergirlee.wordpress.com/2011/02/04/romanesque-architecture/
Renaissance Architecture
http://betheluart340.blogspot.com/2013_01_01_archive.html
Rococo Architecture
http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/r/roco.html
Neoclassical architecture
http://www.airvibez.com/u-s-white-house-shut-lawn-individuals-throw-objects-fences/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Westminster
20th century Architecture
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney_Opera_House
Eastern World Architecture
http://www.itsgoodforus.com/?p=608
Architecture of Ancient Greece was divided into three eras: the Archaic Period (600-500 BCE), the Classical Period (c.500-323 BCE) and the Hellenistic Period (c.323-27 BCE)
The Greeks traditional style of fluted columns and shaped tops “capitals” supporting beams changed the world of architecture.
http://www.greeklandscapes.com/image-slides/aegina-aphaia/
The greeks inspired by Egyptian stone buildings, the Greeks replaced the wooden structures with stone structures
They used limestone and marble columns and walls, while terracotta was used for roof tiles. Most decoration was done in bronze

The Parthenon, Athens. 447-432 BCE
http://frannieloves.wordpress.com/2014/05/04/frannie-loves-the-parthenon-marbles-bring-them-back/
Romans architecture reflected the demands of the Roman Empire. The Roman architecture chartered to increased population, creating public buildings, drainage systems, bridges. All while showing the grand power of the empire.
Roman architecture advanced in design and materials from it’s Greek processors. Romans developed arches and roof domes. Arches improved the efficiency and capability of bridges
http://www.history.com/photos/roman-architecture-and-engineering/photo5
Domed roofs allowed larger areas covered.
The Romans invented of concrete. Creating exceptionally strong structures compared to stone.



http://www.romanhomes.com/vacation_rentals/apartments/4_star/navona-terrace-rome-view-all-sights-domes.htm
Byzantine architecture (330-554 CE) continued the tradition of Roman architecture, constructing churches and religious buildings.
During Byzantine era, larger and more magnificent domes, were created to support larger buildings.

Gothic Architecture
http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/st-marks-basilica-landmark.htm
Gothic architecture style is known the use of pointed arches, thinner walls, ribbed vaults, usually including huge stained glass windows and elaborate tracery.

http://www.paradoxplace.com/Photo%20Pages/France/Burgundy%20Champagne/Reims/Reims_Cathedral/Reims_Cathedral.htm
Gothic Architecture surpassing Romanesque, This type of Architecture was highly promoted by the church. In Gothic Architecture, more vaulted higher arches were created.
Romanesque Architecture
Renaissance architecture (1400-1620) was rediscovery of architectural styles and theories of Ancient Rome and Greece. Roman designs, ideal building proportions from mathematical and geometrical principles were rediscovered to use in modern buildings.
https://www.flickr.com/photos/mickymazda/3992343573/
http://www.glasssteelandstone.com/BuildingDetail/133.php
Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. 1506-1626.
Bramante
Renaissance buildings were modeled after architecture of the Greeks and Romans, but gave modern features of Byzantine and Gothic invention, like complex domes and towers. In addition adding modern mosaics and stained glass, and murals.

The Rococo architecture movement (1715-1789) focused more on interior design. Rococo architects - created decorated rooms, whose walls, murals, tapestries, furniture, mirrors, porcelain, silks and other embellishments were done in complete decoration. Most of this work was done in pastels.


Neoclassical architecture (1640-1850) returned to the classical architecture of Greek and Roman Antiquity. This style used all the engineering advances and new materials of the era


20th century architecture has been dominated by new buildings, ideas inventions, technologies. 20th century is nothing of like the past.
http://realestateempire.com/linkedin-expands-to-160000sf-at-empire-state-building/
http://www.ville-poissy.fr/fr/decouvrir-poissy/sites-et-monuments/la-villa-savoye.html
http://world-visits.blogspot.com/2013/12/temple-of-heaven-beijing-china-most.html
http://www.headseast.com/blog/?p=1
Famous Architects
Michelangelo
Michelangelo was a master architect. Michelangelo helped designed radical principles to his design of the Laurentian Library and the dome St. Peter's Basilica
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703453804575480303339391786

Louis Henry Sullivan
Louis Henry Sullivan was the first man to design skyscrapers. He built the 16-story Guaranty Building in Buffalo, built in 1894. Frank Lloyd Wright worked under Sullivan.
Louis Henry Sullivan, (Prudential Building), Guaranty Building, Buffalo, 1896
http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/history-iii-arc/deck/3954973
http://wdanielanderson.wordpress.com/2013/10/02/gaudis-masterpiece-when-completed-in-2026/
Antoni Gaudi
http://mulherescomasas.blogspot.com/
Antoni Gaudi was a spanish artist in the 19th-20th centruy. His neo-gothic/surrealism style. He used curves and bright vibrant colors in his work.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was a 20th century architect. He deigned prairie style homes, using horizontal lines in his work. His promoted the idea of organic architecture, where you incorporate the surrounding natural environment into the building.
http://ciprianicharlesdesigns.wordpress.com/2014/05/07/frank-lloyd-wrights-iconic-fallingwater/
21st Century Architecture
https://www.flickr.com/photos/cheishichiyo/7426659892/
21st Architecture is very modernistic. It uses many shapes, almost a geometric look.
Architecture is all about the viewer. The viewer perspective of a buildings. It's about have appreciation for the work done in the buildings.
Terms to know

Arch: A curved or pointed structural element that is supported at its sides.

Column: A supporting pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital on top of the shaft.

Cupola: A small dome

Facade: An exterior wall, or face, of a building.

Fluting: Shallow, vertical grooves of a column or pilaster.

Order: A classical style of Architecture used in Ancient Greece

Pagoda: A tiered tower with multiple roof layers, constructed about a center.

Pillar: A structural support

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/wonder/structure/chrysler2_skyscraper.html
Websites and Books
"HowStuffWorks "10 Most Famous
Architects Who Ever Lived"." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://home.howstuffworks.com/home-improvement/construction/planning/10-most-famous-architects.htm>.

"HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE." HISTORY OF
ARCHITECTURE. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=1511&HistoryID=ab27>rack=pthc>.

"History of Architecture (3,000 BCE - present)
Evolution of Building Design." Architecture, History: Evolution of Building Design. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ART, n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/architecture-history.htm#roman>.

Stevenson, Neil. Architecture. New York: DK Pub., 1997. Print.
"The 21 Greatest Buildings of the 21st Century - Gear Patrol." Gear Patrol. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://gearpatrol.com/2013/11/14/twenty-one-coolest-buildings-twenty-first-century/>.
Chrysler Buliding, New York. 1928-1930. William Van Allen
Ankor Wat, Cambodia. 12th century
.
Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. 1473-1481. Baccio Pontelli,
Palace of Versailles, France.
Chichen Itza, Mexico.

Petra, Jordan. 390 BCE
Forbiddden City, Beijing China. 1403 0r 1420
Precinct of Amun-Re, Egypt.
Abu Simbel temple, Egypt. 1264 BCE
Precinct of Amun-Re, Egypt.
Pyraminds of Giza, El Giza, Egypt.
El
Temple of Aphaea, Aigina,Greece. 500BCE
Colosseum, Rome. 70-80
Roman Forum, Rome
Dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. 4th century
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. 537-1453
St, Mark's Basiclica, Venice. 1084-1184
Piazza dei Miracoli, Pisa Italy. 1092
Reims Cathedral, Reims France. 1211.
Interior of Reims Cathedral, Reims France
Florence cathedral, Florence Italy.
White House, Washington D.C. 1792-1800. James Hoban
Sydney Opera House, Sydney Australia. 1958-1973. Jorn Utzon
Empire State Building. New York City, 1928-1931. Shreve, Lamb & Harmon
Villa Savoye, France. 1929-1931. Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret
TaJ Mahal, Agra India. 1648. Ustad Ahmad Lahouri, Ustad Isa
Temple of Heaven, China
Potala Palace, Tibet/China. 637
Laurentian Library, Florence Italy. 1525-1573
Sagrada Família, Barcelona Spain. 1883-present
Park Güell, Barcelona, Spain. 1914
Falllingwater, Mill Run, Pennsylvania 1936-1939
Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles. 1999-2003
Gardens by the Bay, Marina Bay, Singapore. 2012
By: Erin Landis
"Glossary of Architectural Terms." Trust for
Architectural Easements. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://architecturaltrust.org/outreach/education/glossary-of-architectural-terms/>.
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