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Transcript of Guyana
Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Has been the national flag of Guyana since May 1966.
It was designed by Whitney Smith, an American vexillologist
The black and white fimbriations, were later additions suggested by the College of Arms in the United Kingdom.
Green for agriculture and forests, white for rivers and water, gold for mineral wealth, black for endurance, and red for zeal and dynamism.
Coat of arms of Guyana
The coat of arms of Guyana (Co-operative Republic of Guyana) was granted by the College of Arms on 25 February 1966.
A crest of an Amerindian head-dress symbolizing the indigenous people of the country.
Two diamonds at the sides of the head-dress representing mining industry;
A helmet (monarchial insignia);
Two jaguars as supporters holding a pick axe
Sugar cane, and a stalk of rice.
A shield decorated with the Victoria regia lily,
Guyana's national flower;
Three blue wavy lines and the national bird, the Canje Pheasant .
The national MOTTO
Etimology: The name comes from an Amerindian word meaning "land of many waters"
Tribes residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Machushi, Patamona, Arawak, Carib, Wapishana, Arecuna, Akawaio, and Warrau.
Historically the Arawak and Carib tribes dominated Guyana.
Christopher Columbus sighted Guyana during his third voyage (in 1498)
The Dutch were the first to establish colonies: Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752).
The Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana.
Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970.
In May 2008, President Bharrat Jagdeo was a signatory to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Guyana has ratified the treaty.
The territory controlled by Guyana lies between latitudes 1° and 9°N, and longitudes 56° and 62°W.
The country can be divided into five natural regions.
The local climate is tropical and generally hot and humid, though moderated by northeast trade winds along the coast.
Guyana has one of the largest unspoiled rainforests in South America, some parts of which are inaccessible by humans.
The present population of Guyana is racially and ethnically heterogeneous, with ethnic groups originating from India, Africa, Europe, and China, as well as indigenous or aboriginal peoples. Despite their diverse ethnic backgrounds, these groups share two common languages: English and Creole.
The largest ethnic group is the Indo-Guyanese (also known as East Indians), the descendants of indentured labourers from India, who make up 43.5% of the population, according to the 2002 census
Most Indo-Guyanese are descended from Bhojpuri-speaking Bihari and Uttar Pradesh migrants.
The main economic activities in Guyana are agriculture (production of rice and Demerara sugar), bauxite mining, gold mining, timber, shrimp fishing and minerals.
The sugar industry, which accounts for 28% of all export earnings, is largely run by the company Guysuco, which employs more people than any other industry.
Government and Politics
The politics of Guyana takes place in a framework of a representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Guyana is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly of Guyana.
Historically, politics are a source of tension in the country, and violent riots have often broken out during elections. During the 1970s and 1980s, the political landscape was dominated by the People's National Congress.
General Elections were held on 28 November 2011, which resulted in a re-election of the People's Progressive Party (PPP) and installation of that party's presidential candidate Mr. Donald Ramotar as President.
The Guyana Defence Force (GDF) is the military service of Guyana
The GDF was formed on November 1, 1965. Members of the new Defence Force were drawn from the British Guiana Volunteer Force (BGVF), Special Service Unit (SSU), British Guiana Police Force BGPF and civilians. Training assistance was provided by British instructors.
The GDF is an integral part of the Guyanese nation. Resources and equipment of the GDF are used to help other Guyanese; examples include medical mercy flights and the construction of roads and airstrips by the Engineering Corps.
Cross-border bridge from Guyana to Brazil near Lethem.
There are a total of 116 miles (187 km) of railway, all dedicated to ore transport.
There are 4,952 miles (7,969 km) of highway, of which 367 miles (591 km) are paved. Navigable waterways extend to 669 miles (1,077 km), including the Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers.
There are ports at Georgetown, Port Kaituma, and New Amsterdam.
There is 1 international airport (Cheddi Jagan International Airport, Timehri); 1 regional airport (Ogle Airport); and about 90 airstrips, 9 of which have paved runways. Guyana, Suriname and the Falkland Islands are the only three regions in South America which drive on the left.
The electricity sector in Guyana is dominated by Guyana Power and Light (GPL), the state-owned vertically integrated utility.
Although the country has a large potential for hydroelectric and bagasse-fueled power generation, most of its 226 MW of installed capacity correspond to inefficient thermoelectric diesel-engine driven generators.
Several initiatives are in place to improve energy access in the hinterland.
Key issues in the water and sanitation sector in Guyana are poor service quality, a low level of cost recovery and low levels of access.
A high-profile management contract with the British company Severn Trent was cancelled by the government in February 2007.
In 2008 the public utility Guyana Water Inc implemented a Turnaround Plan (TAP) to reduce non-revenue water and to financially consolidate the utility. NRW reduction is expected to be 5% per annum for the three-year period of the plan, A mid term review is now due to examine the success of the TAP
Water supply and sanitation
Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 67.39 years for both males and females in 2012. Malaria is a leading cause of death in Guyana, with a mortality rate of 5 per 100,000 of the population.
According to 2011 estimates from the WHO, HIV prevalence is 1.2% of the adult population (ages 15–49).
Although Guyana's health profile falls short in comparison with many of its Caribbean neighbours, there has been remarkable progress since 1988, and the Ministry of Health is working to upgrade conditions, procedures, and facilities.
Guyana's culture is very similar to that of the English-speaking Caribbean, and has historically been tied to the English-speaking Caribbean as part of the British Empire when it became a possession in the nineteenth century. Guyana is a founding member of the Caricom (Caribbean Community) economic bloc and also the home of the Bloc's Headquarters, the CARICOM Secretariat
Its blend of Indo-Guyanese (East Indian) and Afro-Guyanese (African) cultures gives it similarities to Trinidad and distinguishes it from other parts of the Americas. Guyana shares similar interests with the islands in the West Indies, such as food, festive events, music, sports, etc.
Guyana's educational system is considered to be among the best in the Caribbean, but it deteriorated significantly in the 1980s, because of inadequate funding and emigration of many highly educated citizens.
Although the education system recovered in the 1990s, it still does not produce the quality of educated students necessary for Guyana to modernise its workforce. The country lacks a critical mass of expertise in many of the disciplines and activities on which it depends.
The major sports in Guyana are cricket (Guyana is part of the West Indies as defined for international cricket purposes ), softball cricket (beach cricket), and football. Minor sports include field hockey, netball, rounders, lawn tennis, basketball, table tennis, boxing, squash, rugby, horse racing and a few others.
John Agard, poet.
Jan Carew, writer and educator.
Edgar Mittelholzer, author
Leona Lewis, singer.
Ryan Hinds, professional cricket player.
Alfred A. Thorne, educator, leader and politician
Janet Jagan, née Rosenberg, president from 1997–1999, the first and only female Jewish head of state outside Israel.
The Golden Arrowhead
It has its influences from the British, Africans, East Indians, Amerindians, Creoles, Amerindians, French and Portuguese. Their menus are always a mixture of these influences and use their very own food resources for each.
One of their favourite dishes is curry with roti. They also make cook-up rice – one pot meal of rice with beans or peas or probably both and usually served with fried chicken or fish
They are fond of making homemade breads and pastries.
They usually serve crab or fish with plantains, cassava, eddoes and coconut milk.
As for beverages, the locals use fresh fruits and make their own drinks which they call “local drinks”.
Capital and largest city: Georgetown
Official language: English
National language: Guyanese Creole
43.5% East Indian
30.2% Black (African)
- Total 214,970 km2 (85th) 83,000 sq mi
- Water (%) 8.4
The four longest rivers are the Essequibo at 1,010 kilometres long, the Courantyne River at 724 kilometres , the Berbice at 595 kilometres, and the Demerara at 346 kilometres.
Guyana is a country rich in water. Numerous rivers flow into the Atlantic Ocean, generally northward.
The Guyanese Dollar is the currency of Guyana.
The main agricultural exports are cocoa and coffee too.
Fishing, favored by the continental shelf, allowing shrimp sale abroad. Apart from agriculture, the other rich country is bauxite (aluminum industry). There are also deposits of diamonds and gold and timber reserves remarkable.
Data from a 2002 census on religious affiliation indicates that approximately 57% of the population is Christian. 28% are Hindu and 7% are Muslims. An estimated 4% of the population does not profess any religion.
Most Guyanese Christians are either Protestants or Roman Catholics and include a mix of all races.
"Land of many waters"
The mass suicide in Jonestown 1978
Jim Jones, founder of the "Peoples Temple Agricultural Project"
More than 80% of Guyana is still covered by forests, ranging from dry evergreen and seasonal forests to montane and lowland evergreen rain forests.
Guyana is in border disputes with both Suriname, which claims the area east of the left River and the New River in southwestern Suriname, and Venezuela which claims the land west of the Essequibo River, once the Dutch colony of Essequibo as
1 Barima-Waini 20,339
2 Pomeroon-Supenaam 6,195
3 Essequibo Islands-West Demerara 3,755
4 Demerara-Mahaica 2,232
5 Mahaica-Berbice 4,190
6 East Berbice-Corentyne 36,234
7 Cuyuni-Mazaruni 47,213
8 Potaro-Siparuni 20,051
9 Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo 57,750
10 Upper Demerara-Berbice 17,040
Guyana is divided into 10 regions