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Manifest Destiny Project
Transcript of Manifest Destiny Project
The reason Americans thought Texas was unique because it grew cotton, a valuable cash crop. Stephen Austin hoped it would become part of the US when they fought for it against the Mexicans after his father died. When Mexicans allowed Americans to settle in Texas, it came with rules. One was that they had to promise to become Mexican citizens. Another was that they had to join the Catholic Church. Austin agreed to follow their rules to start his colony. Overtime, Americans tried to get used to it but they didn't respect Mexican culture and started settling in Texas illegally. The government stopped the immigration system of letting Americans in and started sending troops in. Americans wanted to rebel to win Texas. Stephen Austin tried to tell Mexicans peacefully to open the immigration rules again. Santa Anna, the general of the Mexican government, just put him in jail. In 1835, the Americans started to revolt against the Mexicans. A mission called the Alamo was in their group, with William Travis who was sending messages to other towns to help make reinforcements for the Alamo, which didn't work successfully. Since the Americans were outnumbered in the battle, they lost to the Mexicans who defeated every one of the Alamo defenders. The Alamo was still remembered for fighting for their independence. Sam Houston, commander for the army, came up with a strategy to do a surprise attack on Santa Anna's army. It worked and he and his troops managed to capture Santa Anna. In exchange to free him, Santa Anna pushed remaining troops out of Texas. Texas became an independent country for 10 years and was called the Lone Star Republic for its flag with one star. some Americans wanted Texas to be annexed and become part of the US. James Polk, a believer of Manifest Destiny, was elected for President and Congress voted to annex Texas in December 29th, 1845. It became the 28th state of the US. A year later, Mexicans fought Americans who were on the Rio Grande (the border line) which soon started the war with Mexico.
Includes Current States:
Current States it includes:
Current States it Includes:
Current States it Includes:
Mississippi, Louisiana, & Florida
Spain colonized had first Florida in the 1500s and it later became a diversely populated country. In 1804, Jefferson tried to send diplomats to Spain to buy Florida from them, but they rejected. Slave owners in Georgia were mad because their slaves would run away to Florida and then Seminole Indians would welcome them. White landowners were also mad because there were Seminole raids on their lands. Spain's control over Florida weakened when they couldn't stop the Seminole raids on the farmlands in Georgia because Spain didn't have any military presence in Florida. President James Monroe in 1818, sent Andrew Jackson to end the raids, but he wasn't allowed to invade the colony.To stop the Seminole raids based in East Florida, he went to Florida with over 1,000 troops to capture every military post. The U.S. army attacks with the Seminole Indians was called the First Seminole War. He executed British for starting Indian attacks, and replaced the Spanish governor with an American one. Spain wanted Andrew Jackson to be punished for the invasion. After this, Monroe's cabinet advised him to execute Andrew Jackson and apologize to Spain. But, then his secretary of state, John Quincy Adams, convinced him to tell Florida to govern properly or leave. At first, they asked British for help with this but, then London declined to help in the negotiation. After that, Spain decided that the cession of Florida made sense because it was facing trouble after the Peninsular War and had to rebuild itself. Since Florida became a burden for Spain, they ceded the territory to the U.s with the Adams-Onis Treaty. It was signed on February 22nd, 1819, in Washington by John Quincy Adams and Spanish minister Luis de Onís.
The Mexican Cession of 1848 started when President of the 1844 election ,James K. Polk decided to expand the United States after having acquired the Texas Annexation and the Oregon Country. He wanted to buy New Mexico and California from Mexico. They were first colonized by Spain, but when Mexico won independence in 1821, they became Mexican territories. When the Mexican government didn't pay much attention to these hardly settled territories, Polk sent a representative to Mexico to try to buy the territories, but the Mexican officials refused. The Mexican War (1846-1848) all began when Congress's action to annex Texas became a threat to Mexico . It was insulting to them because of what happened with the Battle of the Alamo, and the Amercians' capture of what used to be the Mexican Texas. Then the two disagreed on the border for Texas. The U.S wanted the border line to be the Rio Grande, while Mexico wanted the border line to be the Nueces River. On April 25th,1846, Mexican soldiers attacked Americans who were along the Rio Grande . President Polk became furious and Congress declared war on Mexico. Months later, General Stephen Kearny, leader of Army of the West, led his army out of Texas and went to occupy New Mexico and then continue west to California. His occupation with his army on New Mexico succeeded without any violence. During this , an explorer named John C. Fremont led a group of Americans with a rebellion against Mexican rule in California. They jailed the Mexican commander of Northern California, General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. They eventually raised their flag and declared California the Bear Flag Republic (because of the grizzly bear on the flag). Kearny then reached California-which was at that point controlled by America-and joined with the rebels. Later,American troops battled South out of Texas under General Zachary Taylor. He was called "Old Rough & Ready" because of his backwoods clothes. He led his 6,000 troops to the Mexican city, Monterrey where he saw General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and his 20,000 troops. This is when the Battle of Buena Vista of 1847 started. When Taylor heard that Santa Anna's troops were there, he deployed his troops at a mountain pass near Hacienda Buena Vista. They both fought for 2 days straight and Santa Anna's army won against Taylor's outnumbered troops. Santa Anna's army retreated South and the war in northern Mexico was over. In March, General Winfield Scott led his American forces and landed in Veracruz in southern Mexico. He was known as "Old Fuss & Feathers" because of his love for fancy uniforms and discipline. For the next 6 months, he and his troops fought their way to Mexico City. There, they ran into a Mexican force outside the castle of Chapultec. Six cadets in the Mexican force died and today are remembered as Los Ninos Heroes. On September 1847, Scott's army had already captured Mexico City. This led to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It was signed on February 2nd, 1848, by Nicholas Trist on behalf of the U.S. and by Mexico as Scott's troops were occupying Mexico City. Mexico agreed to give up the region know as the Mexican Cession (almost half of all its territory). They gave up claims to Texas that were above the Rio Grande River. So, in return the U.S. payed Mexico $15 million which is just like they technically purchased it from Mexico. The U.S. also promised to protect the Mexicans who were living in Texas and in the Mexican Cession. Also, congressmen Wilmot Priviso was able to ban slavery in any the of territories acquired from Mexico during the Mexican War and he made an attempt to make the slavery ban part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Many people immigrated to Oregon after hearing how beautiful the tree-covered wilderness was. In 1819, Oregon was claimed by Russia, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States. Spain eventually dropped out because of the treaty for Florida purchase.Then, Russia dropped out because they limited their claim to what is today the southern border of Alaska (North of the 50°40' parallel latitude). So, it left the shared occupation between the U.S. and Britain. Discovering Oregon was based on the Lewis and Clark Expedition when they both led a group of explorers to the Oregon coast. Lewis predicted, in 1806, that many Americans would follow the high and steep path that they discovered, but Jedediah Smith discovered a better passage. It was called the South Pass and it passed through the Rocky Mountains. It was a settler-friendly path because its flatness allowed wagons to go through the Rockies. This is when the Oregon Fever started. Missionaries were the first settlers to travel in the South Pass by Jedediah , to Oregon. These settlers were able to convert the Indians and write reports on Oregon's fertile soil and forests which attracted many more settlers to come to Oregon. Their reports talked about how disease was unknown and that lands are free for taking. The reports encouraged settlers to start moving in in 1843 when 1,000 pioneers were headed for Oregon. When it came to annexing Oregon, people were debating about the issue when President Polk got elected in the 1844 election. They wanted "fifty-four forty or fight", so they basically wanted to annex all of the Oregon Country. But, since Polk didn't want to start a war with Britain because of the border between the US and Canada, he compromised through the treaty called the Treaty Line of 1846. It divided Oregon in half at the 49th parallel (which is the border line today between Oregon and British Columbia). On June 15,1846, Britain and the U.S. signed the treaty and on June 18th 1846, the Senate ratified the compromise treaty.
After the Mexican-American War and the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo, conflicts still occurred over who owned the strip of land south of the Mexican Cession (1853-1854). Both the U.S. and Mexico claimed the strip of land, also known as the Mesilla Valley, part of their country. As Native American attacks started in the Mexican Cession owned by the US, the Mexican government wanted them to protect the Mexicans from the attacks as a promise in the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo. But, the U.S did nothing because they 'did not agree to compensating for them with their own money'. These issues started tensions between the U.S. and Mexican government and ownership over the Gadsden Purchase land. The reason the Gadsden Purchase would help the U.S. is because of its helpful railroad route that railroad builders and merchants are looking for. Before, the US was looking for a southern route for a transcontinental railroad besides the ones that pass Mexican territory. In 1846, they tried to buy the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, which is in the Southern edge of N. America, but Mexico let Mexican Don José de Garay have the right to build colonies for Americans on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Then, Mexican President in 1853, Juan Ceballos feared that a rebellion like the one with Texas would happen, so he took the grant away from him. Later on, Americans that were on the strip of the Gadsden purchase were executed by Mexican officials, but when the US government did nothing, Governor William Lane of New Mexico declared the strip a US territory. Then, General Antonio de Santa Anna sent troops into the valley which made matters worse. To fix it, U.S. President Franklin Pierce of 1853 sent a US minister named James Gadsden to Mexico to negotiate with Santa Anna on September 25, 1853. He told him to consider the border that provided a route for a southern railroad. They negotiated to pay for the land at $15 million at first, but then with the conflict between the northern and southern states in the US, Senate reduced it to $10 million. Santa Anna accepted the offer because he needed it to pay for an army to defeat consistent rebellions in his country. President Pierce and Santa Anna signed the Gadsden Purchase treaty on June 8, 1854. The treaty also helped remove the Native American attacks and illegal claims that started in the beginning
Before the U.S. annexed Hawaii, it was a monarchy kingdom ruled by Queen Liliuokalani. The U.S. interest in Hawaii started in 1890s . Since the 1840s , leaders in Washington were worried that European Empire would take hold in Hawaii because Britain and France controlled treaty decisions for the treaties that were given to Hawaii. In 1842, Secretary of State Daniel Webster told the Hawaiian agents in Washington about the U.S. interests in Hawaii and how he wanted them to decline further interests from other countries. In 1873, King Lunalilo made a treaty with the US to bond between the two nations. To bribe the U.S. the King offered the Pearl Harbor to the U.S.After years of negotiating, the two nations agreed to the treaty through the Hawaii-United States Convention of 1884. They gave the US the right to enter the harbor of Pearl River and to mantain a repair station for the use of vessels of the US and use as a naval base. For the annexation of Hawaii to the United States in 1898, US Navy's facilities were enhanced to support operations in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War. Later on the Sugar Trade started, and the U.S. government supplied the Hawaiian sugar growers (who where mostly white Americans) , and after the Civil War the profits became larger. Fertile land, economy, and sugar productions increased as the U.S. became associated with Hawaii. In 1890, Congress passed the McKinley Tariff which raised tax on foreign sugar and brought depression to the sugar planters. If Hawaii would be annexed, then the tariff issue on the planters would be gone, but Queen Liliuokalani owned the throne. On January 17th, 1893, the planters were forcibly overthrowing Queen Liliuokalani with the leadership of Samuel Dole and the help from the United States army. She yielded from the throne immediately because she wanted to avoid bloodshed or war. The adminastry of President Benjamin Harrison encouraged the takeover of Hawaii and US Minister John L. Stevens, started working with the new Hawaiian government. At that time, Grover Cleveland was President and he disliked the action of taking over Hawaii. Samuel Dole sent a delegates to President Grover Cleveland to annex Hawaii , but he refused. He tried to bring Queen Liliuokalani back to the throne and make the monarchy again , but Congress refused. In 1894, Sanford Dole made himself President of Hawaii without a popular vote and put Queen Liliuokalani in jail for treason for 5 years. In the presidential election of 1896, William McKinley ran for President and became part of the Republican party. When he was afraid that he wasn't going to get Senate's support for the approval of the annexation for Hawaii, the joint resolution quickly passed in Congress and was signed by President McKinley. The reason the joint resolution quickly passed is because political leaders were afraid it might be annexed by Japan. Hawaii was annexed on July 7, 1898 and officially was considered the 50th state in 1959.The reason the joint resolution quickly passed is because political leaders were afraid it might be annexed by Japan.The sugar growers, who increased the islands' economy, imported immigrant laborers from China, Japan, then Portuguese, followed by Puerto Ricans and now, Hawaii has one of the world's most multicultural populations.
1867 (from Russia)
Alaska, 586,412 square miles, today is the largest state in the US. In the 1850s, it was Russia's territory, but Russia didn't pay much attention to this land with rich natural resources. In December 1866, after the civil war, Russian minister Baron Eduard de Stoeckl, offered to sell Alaska to the US since they were struggling with debts after their loss in the Crimean War in 1856. They also sold it because they believed it would benefit in the American philosophy of Manifest Destiny. Therefore, Russia was only interested in Asian expansion at the time. Stoeckl offered the secretary of state (under Presidents Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln) ,William Henry Seward the purchase of Alaska. Seward was an advocate of the US expansionism and he has always desired Alaska. The purchase of Alaska would increase the size of the U.S. by 20%. Stoeckl and Seward signed the treaty of ceding Alaska to the U.S. on March 29, 1867. He bought it for $7.2 million which is 2 cents an acre. People started calling the situation "Seward's Icebox" and "Seward's Folly" because of how much he payed for it. The treaty was passed on April 9th, 1967, for consent after the Senate was convinced by the territory's rich natural resources. Stoeckl even bribed members in Congress to secure their votes because some were unsure about the purchase. On October 18th , a ceremony was held at Sitka for the U.S.'s ownership for Alaska. In June 1877, Alaska was no longer under the U.S.'s Army control, and it was under the Treasury Department. Russians who stayed in Alaska after it was purchased had to become U.S. citizens within 3 years, but most of them left. Then, 30 years after the purchase, the U.S. did not pay too much attention to Alaska until a major gold deposit was found in the Yukon in 1896. After people heard the discovery, it brought attention to many people outside of Alaska making them move there in the 1880s and 90s . Alaska finally become a district with a civil government , and was finally accepted and added as the 49th state on January 3rd, 1959. People felt that the purchase of Alaska was a good move and that it was not "Seward's Folly" anymore.
(Annexed by the U.S. in 1989)
Current States included:
The Louisiana Territory in the 1800s stretched from Canada to Southern Texas and was 828,000 square miles . Louisiana was first claimed by France, but after the French and Indian War, France gave it to Spain. Then, Napoleon Bonaparte (French ruler) gained Louisiana back from Spain. Napoleon wanted Louisiana to settle it with French farmers who would raise food for slaves who were working on sugar plantations in the Caribbean. A slave named Toussaint L'Ouverture led a slave revolt in the Caribbean (Haiti). The slaves defeated the French troops who were taking back the colony, so Napoleon didn't need Louisiana anymore for his plan to help the slaves in the Caribbean. Farmers were concerned of Napoleon's plan before because they thought he would close the port to American goods in New Orleans which meant they couldn’t get their crops to the market. So, James Monroe went to buy New Orleans for $7.5 million. When Napoleon found out about the offer, he decided to sell it to him because France and Britain were already at war and he didn’t want to lose it to the British. He also sold it because France did not have a strong navy to control Louisiana Territory which is far away from France. On April 30th, 1803, James Monroe and Napoleon signed the treaty and the U.S. bought the Louisiana Territory for $15 million which is about 3 cents per acre. On October 20, 1803, Senate voted to ratify the Louisiana Purchase treaty 24 to 7. On May 14, 1804, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark set off on their expedition to discover the Louisiana Territory and see how far it extended after it was purchased. They traveled 8,000 miles, gathering information about the landscapes, plants, animals, resources, and Native Americans who lived there. They traveled up the Missouri River, all the way to the Pacific Ocean. They discovered animals like grizzly bears, prairie dogs, sheep, and antelope that scientists didn’t even know about at that time. In their expedition, they wrote all about the natural resources and fertile soil that Louisiana had to offer down in their journals , and soon, people were inspired and began settling into the Louisiana Territory. The expedition ended when Lewis and Clark returned to St. Louis on September 23, 1806.They helped the United States government have knowledge about the land they purchased.