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Islamic Civilization's Achievements
Transcript of Islamic Civilization's Achievements
7th - 13th century
Islamic Civilization's Achievements
The Beginning of Islam
Islamic scholars translated them from various cultures included works from China, India and Ancient Greece
Influenced various cultures, including European civilizations
Not necessarily concerned with religious issues; not exclusively produced by the Muslims
Neither any Islamic school admit philosophy's usefulness or legitimacy
Some argument of no indication on limited knowledge and human experiences can lead to a truth
First Islamic philosopher: Sergius of Resh'ayna (unknown birth date - 536 AD)
Science in Islam
The Islamic lunar calendar was first introduced in 638 AD by Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
It determines religious festivals such as the fasting period (Ramadan).
Trade networks extended from (West Side) Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea to (East Side) Indian Ocean and China Sea
Created to spread religion, culture, and technology
Use of credit, partnerships, and banks exchanging currency to handle increase of their vast trading network, that made Islamic Empire very wealthy
ART and LITERATURE in Islam
Teachings of Quran forbid Islamic artists using human figures in religious art.
The artists then developed geometric shapes and patterns which were decorations for Islam's buildings called mosques.
Advancement in Medicine
Testing and production of cures on diseases; the very first empire to create sweet syrups
Muslim scholars study anatomy and physiology through human cadavers
Dealings on trauma cases within separate hospital areas
ISLAMIC LAW (al-Shari'ah)
Developed based on the Quran; pronounced
Caters to the needs of Islamic society
Governs the life of Muslims
Regulates all life aspects including moral behavior, family life, business dealings, and the government
Islam culture became a blending of Arabian, Persian, Egyptian, and European customs.
Field of Chemistry (715 AD-800 AD)
Founder: Jabir Ibn Haiyan
Introduction to experimentation that leads alchemy to modern chemistry
The Islamic empire's contribution towards globalization during its Golden Age is significant.
Knowledge, trade and economies from previous isolated regions/civilizations began integrating through contacts with Muslim explorers and traders.
Islamic empire established as world's leading extensive economic power thanks to these trade networks.
Moreover, they also helped to stimulate their cultural and intellectual achievements.
The patterns contained Quran verses written in calligraphy.
Islamic architects borrowed dome and arch patterns from the cities of the Byzantium Empire.
e.g. The Rock's Dome in Jerusalem
Some Islamic artists wrote poetry about the joys and sorrows of love.
Other culture's stories were adapted or rewritten.
Most famous collection is "One Thousand and One Nights"
which is a tale collection
that includes "Aladdin and
The Magic Lamp".
During the Islamic Golden Age began the studies of astronomy, eclipse, planet rotations, and the Earth's circumference under the patronage of
Private observations from Damascus to Baghdad
Meridian degrees were measured
Solar parameters were established
Detailed observations of the sun, moon, stars, and planets were undertaken
-first to mix sweet syrup with medicine
-deals trauma cases efficiently through
separation of hospital rooms; eventually
becomes today's basic dealings of
- teach at Islam's major city hospitals
- specialized for particular diseases,
including mental and emotional cases
Muslim scholars used human cadavers to help students understand how the body functions, which enabled the quick development of surgery.
one of the greatest world's physicians during the Middle Ages
stressed on empirical observation and clinical medicine; unrivaled as diagnostician
wrote a treatise on hospital's hygiene