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War of the Roses
Transcript of War of the Roses
Lasted for eleven years
The Yorks were victorious Rebellion within York family
Lancasters briefly reclaimed throne
Then lost it again Happened after the death of Edward IV
Between Richard III and Henry Tudor
Tudor was a distant Lancaster cousin Why did it start? After Richard II was removed from the throne, the House of Lancaster wanted it even though the House of York had a stronger claim. When Henry VI reigned, the Yorks decided to take back the throne, hopefully without bloodshed as Henry did not have an heir* at the time. For a while the agreement stayed, until Henry did unexpectedly produce an heir. Then Margaret of Anjou, to whom Henry was married to, broke the agreement and insisted that her son become the king of England. Heir: One who inherits or is entitled to inherit the throne Margaret was the leading force behind the Lancaster cause. She led armies and even beheaded enemies herself, just so her son could be king. Websites Books The Wars of the Roses by Michael Hicks
Lancaster Against York by Trevor Royle World History Teacher: Ms. Meadows What was
Renaissance? Renaissance means "new birth" Phase One The first battles went in favour of the Yorks, with the Lancasters losing many soldiers. In the battle of Wakefield however, the Duke of York and his eldest son were ambushed and beheaded. Instead of weakening the House of York though, it only made them angry and they raised more armies under Edward IV, the Dukes second oldest son. The Yorks fought the Lancasters first at St. Albans, then at Towton, which was just as bad for the Lancasters as the battle of Wakefield was for the Yorks. The royal Lancaster family barely escaped with their lives. In 1461 Edward IV was crowned King, and the Lancasters were thrown into exile, stopping armed resistance when their military leader, Somerset, was killed. Phase Two Defeat and exile* of the Lancastrians Warwicks Rebelion The second phase of fighting was caused by dissapointment with Edward IV within the house of York. The Earl of Warwick allied himself with Clarance, a brother of Edward, and tried to get Edward off the throne so Clarance could rule. When Edward IV was captured at the battle of Edgecote, Warwick took advantage of the fact and siezed the throne. It didn't last long though. Richard, Edwards brother, came to his rescue and Edward declared Warwick and Clarence traitors and drove them out of England. Then the most unusual part happened. Warwick went to Queen Margaret of Anju and made an agreement where Prince Henry, her son, would marry Warwicks daughter, and Warwick would build up an army to attack the Yorks. Margaret agreed, and as soon as Warwick attacked with his army, Edward IV fled and Henry VI ruled very briefly. In less than a year though, Edward raised an army and attacked Henry VI in the battle of Barnet where Warwick was killed. A few weeks later, at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Prince Henry was killed, and Henry VI was murdered shortly after. With both Lancastrian heirs dead, Edward ruled for the rest of his life without opposition. Phase Three Usurper* Richard III vs. Henry Tudor Exile: Person banished or living away from his or her country. When Edward IV died, Edward V was supposed to inherit the throne but being too young, Richard, his uncle, was appointed regent*. Regent: One who rules during the minority, absence, or disability of a monarch. Planning to usurp the throne from his nephews, he captured them, put them in the Tower of London for "safe keeping", and put forward accusations against a previous marriage of Edward IV. As for the princes, they were never seen again. There was alot of argument about Richard claiming the throne, and that the princes were probably murdered, but he still had many supporters. Then Henry Tudor declared that he had a claim to the throne. His claim was some what dubious*, though, as all the direct discendants were dead. Henry Tudor hoped that Richard's many enemies would help him. He was right. When he arrived in Wales, he gained many supporters. He then went to battle in the Battle of Bosworth Field. Many of Richard's generals held back or deserted him. In the midst of the battle Richard was slain and the crown went to Henry Tudor. Usurper: To take over or occupy without right Dubious: Uncertainty or doubt; undecided. Henry VI Margaret of Anjou Edward IV Earl of Warwick Henry Tudor The Tudor Rose Thank You for Watching