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hizaoui marwen

on 21 October 2012

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Transcript of geolocation

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Elaborated by :
Mehdi HAJJI 1 Octobre 22, 2012 Geolocation is the identification of the real-world geographic location of an object, such as a radar, mobile phone or an Internet-connected computer terminal.

This is done using a terminal capable of being localized and publish (in real time or deferred) geographic coordinates (latitude / longitude). Introduction Long since, the man felt the need to locate himself. Many attempts have been made in this direction since the invention of the compass(1100 A.D) to the GPS enabled Smart-Phones(2000 s) through the triangulation of radio waves(1900 s), satellite GPS(1960) and automotive GPS navigation(1990 s). 1. History 2 3 2. Geolocation Techniques Geolocation Outline Introduction

1. History

2. Geolocation techniques

3. Domains of use

Conclusion 4 Radiolocation(GSM location) Satellite geolocation Wi-Fi positioning system IP address geolocation 5 This technique allows the positioning of a mobile terminal based on certain information relating to GSM antennas when the device is connected.

The accuracy of positioning may vary from GSM 200 meters to several kilometers, depending on whether the terminal is located in urban areas (where the density of antennas is greater), or in rural areas. 2.1 Radiolocation(GSM location) 6 Today, the GSM method most used is the Cell ID (cell identification radio). This method is to retrieve the identifiers of GSM antennas when the device is connected. Subsequently, through a database linking the identifiers of the cells and the geographical positions of the antennas, the terminal is able to determine its position and to issue an estimate. 2.1 Radiolocation(GSM location) 7 2.1 Radiolocation(GSM location) Radio Frequency identification(RFID) Geolocation by satellites calculates, thanks to signals from a constellation of satellites, the current position on the Earth's surface to a terminal with a compatible chip.

This position is then translated in terms of latitude, longitude and can then be physically represented on a map. Positioning satellite network best known is the GPS (Global Positioning System). In the case of GPS for tracking work space, a network of 27 satellites is circling the Earth.

GPS provides accuracy ranging from 15 to 100 meters for civilian applications. 2.3 Satellite geolocation Similarly a GSM terminal can be located by the Cell ID method in GSM, WiFi terminal can use the same method based on the identifiers of WiFi hotspots (MAC address) it detects.

There are databases of multiple access points WiFi and their geographical position. These bases may belong to private companies or communities that publish for free. 2.2 Wi-Fi positioning system 2.2 Wi-Fi positioning system 8 9 10 11 This method allows determining the geographical position of a computer or any device connected to the Internet based on its IP address.

IP addresses are managed by IANA, an organization that works to cut blocks of IP addresses available and distribute a very controlled manner to countries that request. It is possible to know which country is a terminal connected to the Internet through its IP address. 2.4 IP address geolocation Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of a wireless non-contact system that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking 2.5 Radio Frequency identification(RFID) 2.5 Radio Frequency identification(RFID) 18 14 3.1 Professional applications

Geolocation in the workplace is almost always synonymous with productivity gains, fuel economy, savings in communications and security.

Some areas where geolocation is commonly used are listed below:
Freight and logistics.
Passenger transport.
Monitoring and protection of persons.
Protection of goods and vehicles. 3. Domains of use 17 3.2 Personal applications:

Monitoring and safety of persons.

Animal safety.

Security of personal property (cars...) 3. Domains of use 19 20 Is a combined electrical and data specification for communication between marine electronic devices such as echo sounder, autopilot, GPS receivers and many other types of instruments.
It has been defined by, and is controlled by, the U.S.-based National Marine Electronics Association. 2.3 Satellite geolocation Protocol NMEA 0183 Geolocation usually works by automatically looking up an IP address on a WHOIS service and retrieving the registrant's physical address 2.4 IP address geolocation WHOIS Protocol 12 15 WHOIS is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet resource, such as a domain name, an IP address block, or an autonomous system, but is also used for a wider range of other information. The protocol stores and delivers database content in a human-readable format. The WHOIS protocol is documented in RFC 3912. 2.4 IP address geolocation 2.3 Satellite geolocation 13 16 EVERY day, those of us who live in the digital world give little bits of ourselves away to servers that store our e-mail, Google searches, shopping records and locations. The fact that so many of us give wide-open access to all that information can have privacy issues, that’s why we should use geolocation applications with some precaution. Conclusion 21
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