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The Enlightenment

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by

Daniel Kim

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of The Enlightenment

The Enlightenment
By Mr. Kim
From our previous unit, we know that the Scientific Revolution was a revolt against the Absolutist control the Catholic Church had over and
Knowledge
Education
The Scientific Revolution changed the way people looked at the world. Instead of
superstition
and
fear
. people began to use
logic
and
reason
These changes contributed to a great deal of scientific successes and inventions in many fields like
medicine, mathematics, and astronomy
Inventions include:
These successes convinced the world the power of
human reason
If Reason can give us
Physical Laws
Laws that govern the physical universe
Then
Reason should also give us
Natural Laws
Laws that govern Human Nature
Instead of trying to solve Mathematical problems, people try to solve problems of

society
!
This revolution in thinking is known as the Enlightenment!
Enlightenment thinkers were sure that through reason, every social, political, and economic problems
could finally be solved!
The first step thinkers took was to reexamine how to organize the
government
Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes argued that in our natural state, we would have "
poor, nasty, brutish, and short lives
."
Hobbes thought that people needed a strong government that could
control our evil instincts
, and that people should give up some of their rights in
exchange for order
This is called - The Social Contract
As a result, Hobbes thought that an

Absolute Monarchy
was the the best form of government. This was written in his book,

Leviathan,
which compared a strong government to the power of a leviathan - a massive sea monster
John Locke
Locke believed that people were basically reasonable and moral and that they deserved
Natural Rights
, or
rights that belong to all humans from birth
Locke argued that governments aren't there to control us, but to
protect
our natural rights like
Life, Liberty, and Property
Locke further argued that if a government
failed
to live up to its job of protecting the people, the people had the right to
overthrow the government!
According to Hobbes, people lived their lives according to their
Human Nature.
Hobbes argued that as a result of this human nature, people were naturally
cruel
,
greedy
, and
selfish
=
Which way is better? Why?
Now here is where things get interesting:
Because natural philosophers confirmed the
physical laws of the universe through the use of reason
, they attempted to calculate the
Natural laws of Man as well
.
Enlightenment Thinkers got help from
Enlightened Despots
These were absolutist rulers who were trained and educated by enlightenment thinkers. They forcibly put new ideas about government into action
The Scientific Revolution spurred the Enlightenment as its novel ideas overturned many traditional concepts and introduced new perspectives on man and nature.
dd
"The emancipation of the human consciousness from an immature state of ignorance"
Enlightened Absolutism
Even though Hobbes assumed the worst of men, he posited that
men were all equally terrible
. He championed individual rights, and natural equality of all men.
You're all terrible, but you're all equally terrible together!
Locke also championed the idea of , which is Latin for "Blank Slate." Locke suggested that individuals were born without and . This was all received through experience.
Tabula Rasa
innate ideas
knowledge
Thomas Hobbes
John Locke
Question
Why Government?
Who has Sovereignty?
Limits on government power?
Right of Revolution?
Hobbes
Locke
To protect us FROM OURSELVES
To protect NATURAL RIGHTS
The Monarch
The People
No
No
Yes
Yes
Full transcript