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Transcript of Human Evolution
Descent Line Signs of Evolution Hominids Evolution of bipedalism Social Evolution Theory Adaptations The theory of human evolution evolved from primates or ape like creatures The true discovery began back in history during the year 1857; the first skull of a half ape and human was founded in Neander valley Germany This began the stepping stones that fueled the debate of the search of more skeletons to prove the theory Charles Darwin theorized that all living things had a common ancestor which was published in his book The Origins of Species in 1859 But some didn't agree with Darwin's theory. One Example is Thomas Huxley in 1863 when he disagreed with human evolution and apes Darwin continued his theory by publishing The decent of Man in 1871 by applying the theory of natural selection to human evolution since 1857, many Hominid skeletons we found all over the world Many scientist believe that apes and humans have a common ancestors and it's oldest ancestor may have existed between 10 and 7 million years ago but there is little fossil evidence to support this The common ancestor may have been orrorin tugenensis which lived 7 million years ago Today scientist have narrowed down the Hominid phylogenetic tree by stating that humans are closely related to chimpanzees Today the Hominid family(Bipedal primates)*the ability to walk on two feet, have been able to grow into several genus including: Ardipithecus- the most ape like hominids
Australopithecus- small brained slender hominids
Paranthropus- small-brained robust hominids with a grassland vegetable diet
Homo- large-brained hominids with a omnivorous diet.... An example is Lucy(first H.sapien skeleton found in Ethiopia). Ardipithecus ramidus Evolved 4.4 million years ago
founded in 1992- fossil (Ardi) founded in Ethiopia
most Primitive hominid ever found with more chimpanzee features than any other human ancestor
Ardi's features are more primitive than seen on modern apes showing the split of chimpanzee's and gorillas from the common ancestors humans have Australopithecus afarensis 3.5 to 2.9 million years old
Lucy 3.2 million years old was founded by Donald Johanson in 1974
small braincase and large teeth and chewing muscles similar to chimpanzees
legs and pelvis bone exhibited similar human characteristics
walked upright Homo Habilis 2.5 to 1.6 million years old
Homo habilis meaning "handy man," was the first species to use primitive stone tools
large brains but smaller than Homo erectus
first fossil founded in 1960 in Tanzania Homo Erectus 1.8 to 300,000 years old
Means "upright walking man" and known as the Java man
fossils found throughout Africa and Asia making it the first wide-range hominid
skeleton similar to human although thicker and heavier
first Hominid to use fire Homo Neanderthals 230,000 -30,000 years old
first fossil found in 1857
adapted to live in cold climates
jutting nose set on large face with massive brow ridges and no chin
lived across Europe and southwest of Asia
larger brains than modern humans from front to back Homo sapiens 120,000 to present time
also known as sapien sapien
classified as (Cro-Magnon) made elaborate tools out of bones, antlers, as well as artworks such as paintings
After the temperature dropped, homo sapiens spread near east 90,000 years, Australia 50,000 years ago, Europe 40,000 years ago, and the Americas 12,00 years ago Today we see many of the evolutionary changes on our body's as time has past, such as: Appendix- we currently have no use in the modern human body. Today it is removed if it infected. As our bodies have change alongside with our diet, we don't have no use of the Appendix. Coccyx- used to be the human tail which we also don't need and has disappeared due to evolution. Third eyelid- a white membrane that is quite rare in mammals, but it is common in birds, reptiles and fish. some humans have the third eyelid but it does not work and is not always visible Wisdom teeth- we had wisdom teeth today since back in the past, we ate plants. Also we need to eat efficiently and quickly-also the extra molars made our large mouths more productive Plantaris Muscles- used by animals to grip objects with your feet. Humans have this muscles but since it's underdeveloped and not in use, doctors use the tissue to reconstruct other parts of the body The ability to walk upright started to evolve 4 million years ago This naturally selected because it freed up the hands and saved energy while moving, as well as enabling long distance running and hunting, and help avoid hypothermia Humans have developed opposable thumbs which allows us to grasp other things we normally couldn't Along with the thumbs we have also been able to analyze and adapt to many situations Our very large intelligence allowing us to learn faster than any other known animal. This started with the expansion of the brain and skull through meat and proteins obtained. Loss of body hair- today human are almost completely "naked skin." Natural selection chose to evolve out hair because it was most sexually preferred over time. Selective traits for humans helped us to adapt to our environment as we developed and changed overtime Cultural evolution is the study of society and culture. This further expands on the study of how even though there are thousands of different cultures with distinctive beliefs and practices, all humans’ exhibit culture in some way. Culture evolution also includes items as writing, drawing, religion and science.When going back in the Neanderthals time, they had a ritual which required a burial for the dead. This was the showing of Homo sapiens developing culture as they created complex thinking. This complex thinking led to the creation of religion through art shown through cave paintings, since they had the free time after domesticating animals. Overall, what makes us human and the ability to evolve is the way we present information to communicate an expression of ourselves. Evolutionary medicine In ancient times, purely natural resources were used then antibiotics were developed. Cultural evolution Evolution selected many different defense mechanisms to fight against infection. Ex. fevers Overall, the ability to learn from past generations separates us from most animals and has allowed us to succeed as the dominant species on earth Even though the human population is still evolving, it's to slow to notice. As science and the genetic code is further developed in the future, humans may be able t control the our own evolutionary path in the future.