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Leadership

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Kristy Brunskill

on 30 May 2015

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Transcript of Leadership

Meaningful Concepts
Emotional intelligence
Theory
Strategy
Teams
Decision-making
Women in the workplace
Personal and work goals
Lifelong learning
Influence
Guidance
Motivation
Vision
Goals
Leadership is a broad concept
Learning
Emotional Intelligence
Practicing
Teams
Moving
Forward

Personal and Work Goals
Strategy
Theory
Decision-making
Women at Work
Lifelong Learning
What is it?
Self-awareness
Self-regulation
Motivation
Empathy
Social skill
(Goleman, 2011)
Recognizing and understanding own emotions and how they affect others
Thinking before acting
Finding meaning in achievement for its own sake and pursuing goals with energy
Understanding emotions of others and interacting with them accordingly
Building rapport and managing relationships
Twice as important as general or technical intelligence, and increasingly important as a person rises within an organization (Kirk, Schutte, & Hine, 2009)
Creates an environment of trust and fairness because situations and people are assessed honestly and accurately (Goleman, 2011)
Negative emotions are common in the workplace.
People may not understand how their actions affect others.
Not consulting on decisions
Being slow to provide needed information
Keeping important information quiet
Negative feelings create conflict.
(Kirk et al., 2009)
Emotions can be communicated and shared unconsciously.
"Mood contagion" is the transfer of moods from one person to another.
Some people are influenced more than others.
Organizational culture affects how people handle feelings.
(Kirk et al., 2009)
Path-Goal Theory
Transformational Theory
Looks at what motivates followers, what will boost their satisfaction and performance
Leader defines goals, identifies the path, clears out roadblocks, and provides support and guidance
Considers emotions, ethics, values, and standards
Often a long-term view
View followers and situations in a holistic manner
Connect with followers and the greater concepts, not just the immediate task at hand

Participative
(Northouse, 2013)
(Northouse, 2013)
(Northouse, 2013)
Personal Path-Goal Strengths
Achievement-oriented
Inclusion
Consult
Discuss
Unity
Ownership
Challenge
High expectations
Confidence
Continuous improvement
Personal Transformational Strengths
Idealized influence
Intellectual stimulation
Role model
Ethical standards
Influences adoption of vision
Trusted
Followers identify with
Creative thinking
Problem solving
Critical analysis
Try new things
Promotes innovation
(Northouse, 2013)
Porter's Five Strategic Forces
Source: Source http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_08.htm
First steps
What is our competitive advantage?
Begin to develop and then improve processes
Investigate and understand resources, capabilities, and relationships among them
Once foundations are set
Leader's responsibility is to take action and turn the strategic vision into reality.

In today's rapidly changing world, leaders must be flexible, open to new ideas, and adaptable.
Allow followers to take risks, make decisions, and contribute ideas.
Leader must make sure all actions and decisions align with overarching vision.
(Mgbere, 2009)
Keep strategic vision, goals, actions fresh
Question and reevaluate options, opinions, and assumptions
Work and associate with people who are different
Offers alternate perspectives and fresh insights
Maybe market, situation, customer needs have changed
Do something different
(Rein, 2010)
Common Problems
Basing decisions on experience (Soll, Milkman, & Payne, 2015; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
Outcome bias (Bazerman & Moore, 2013; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
Availability bias (Soll et al., 2015; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
Relying on Experience
Past may not be interpreted correctly
Current situation might not be the same
May have learned the wrong lesson
Memories can be faulty
Could be making incorrect associations
Study decision process
Look for differences--Examine what is truly happening currently
Consider other situations and options
Outcome Bias
Focusing on the outcome instead of the decision process

Might stick with a bad process because of a lucky outcome
Recognition goes to solving rather than preventing problems
Study failures
Examine decision process, not just outcomes
Encourage people to report problems, potential problems, and near misses
Positive outcomes are sometimes random chance
(Soll et al., 2015; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
(Bazerman & Moore, 2013; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
Availability Bias
(Soll et al., 2015; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
Basing decision only on information available
Might look for details that confirm beliefs
May focus too much on dramatic or attention-grabbing information
Relying too much on second-hand information
Seek information that contradicts
Gather information from various sources
Discuss, especially with people who bring different perspectives and experience
(Grant & Jordan, 2012)
Characteristics of Teams
Focused on goals, people understand their roles, shared responsibility, trusting atmosphere, frequent communication (Zaccaro & Klimoski, 2002)
Teams "may often be impaired not because individual members lack requisite task abilities but rather because, as a team, they fail to combine and coordinate their individual capabilities and contributions effectively in collective action” (Zaccaro & Klimoski, 2002, p. 4).
Interdependence, accepted norms, everyone participates, respect, willing to learn (Reis, 2010)
Flexible, find value in achieving group goals over individual desires (Adler, Hecksher, & Prusak, 2011)
A Tale of Two Teams
Group formed to create written process and procedure book
The Ineffective Team
Some people were more concerned about personal goals
One person frequently checked up on other members
Some people rarely spoke
Frequent tardiness and missed meetings
Arguing over details that had already been decided
A Tale of Two Teams
The Effective Team
Each person had tasks to accomplish every week
Group formed to redesign a product
Lack of respect (interrupting, talking over others)
Discussed experience and knowledge at first meetings
Daily interactions, information shared freely
Still had disagreements, but done in a polite way
People shared reasons for disagreeing
Agendas provided prior to meetings
Historical Perspective
Women in the workplace are a relatively new phenomenon (Bolden, Gosling, & Hawkins, 2011).
Even when we did work in the past, it was not as a leader or manager.
First wave was in the early 20th century, prompted by the suffragette movement (Bolden et al., 2011).
Many women took jobs during WWII because men were overseas.
Second wave began in 1960s with women's liberation movement, Civil Rights Act and related laws, elimination of the "marriage bar," and other social changes (Bolden et al., 2011; Hill, 2013).
Looking back is useful to encourage perspective and understanding of the present (Seaman & Smith, 2013).
Provides sense of identity
Build the future on the foundation of the past
Representation in the Workforce
(Baxter & Warner, 2015)
Women's Salaries as a Percentage of Men's
(Baxter & Warner, 2015)
Leadership Style
Female
Compassion
Affection
Helpful
Friendly
Soft-spoken
Sympathetic
Participation
Interpersonal
Democratic
Male
Competitive
Aggressive
Ambitious
Dominant
Authority
Hierarchy
Task-oriented
Directive
Individualist
Autocratic
(Herrera, Duncan, Green, & Skaggs, 2012)
Challenges
Pay inequities
2010 MBA graduates
60% women started entry level jobs; 46% men did
On average, women started at $4,600 less than male counterparts
Lack of role models
Feelings of insecurity
Outdated work cultures, policies, structures
(Hill, 2013)
Well-Being and Work
Sense of well-being important for healthy, satisfying life
Alignment of work/career with life goals
Personal goals facilitated through work
Achievement
Learning
Purpose
Meaning
Work and Personal Goals
(Santos, Hayward, & Ramos, 2012)
New and different
Expand skills
Build on strengths
Make a difference
Think about what is important and what it will take to reach that goal
Interim goals lead to perception of progress
Shared with work or just related
(Santos et al., 2012)
Take Responsibility for Learning
Connect: Workplace provides incentive and opportunity
Shape: Customize your experience
Learn: Develop knowledge and skills
Stretch: Move out of comfort zone
Achieve: Focus and sustain efforts
Contribute: Help others learn
Incorporate into everyday life, including work
Areas to Focus On
I
C
E
ntegrity
ourage
mpathy
Core values, trust, substance
Follow through, be dependable
Be honest, whether good or bad
Give and get constructive criticism
Confidence in self and followers
Take responsibility, even things go wrong
Let others have the credit they deserve
Provide guidance, direction, support
Genuine regard for people you lead
Understand human wants, desires, needs
People are important--connect
(Stefano, 2005)
Leadership
Leadership
Improve understanding
Conclusion
Emotional Intelligence
Theory
Strategy
Teams
Decision-making
Women in the Workplace
Personal and Work Goals
Lifelong Learning

Adler, P., Hecksher, C., Prusak, L. (2011). Building a collaborative enterprise.
Harvard Business Review, 89
(7/8), 94-101.

Baxter, E. & Warner, J. (2015). Fact sheet: 4 Generations of American women. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/report/2015/05/12/113003/factsheet4generationsofamericanwomen/

Bazerman M. H., & Moore, D. A. (2013).
Judgment in managerial decision making
(8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Bolden, R., Gosling, J., & Hawkins, J. (2011).
Exploring leadership: Individual, organizational, and societal perspectives.
Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Goleman, D. (2011). What makes a leader? In Harvard Business Review (Ed.),
HBR’s 10 must reads on leadership.
Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

Grant, R.M., & Jordan J. (2012).
Foundations of strategy.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Herrera, R., Duncan, P. A., Green, M. T., Skaggs, S. L. (2012). The effect of gender on leadership and culture.
Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 31
(2), 37-48.

Hill, K. (2013). We’ve come a long way, baby, or have we?
Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 17
(2), 29-36.

Kirk, B., Schutte, N, & Hine, D. (2009). The role of emotional self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and affect in workplace incivility and workplace satisfaction. In W. J. Zerbe, N. M. Ashkanasy, & C. E. Hartel (Eds.),
Emotions in groups, organizations and cultures.
Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald.

Mgbere, O. (2009). Exploring the relationship between organizational culture, leadership styles and corporate performance: An overview.
Journal of Strategic Management Education, 5
(3/4):187-202.

Mosher, B. (2015). It all starts with learners.
Chief Learning Officer, 14
(5), 12.

Northouse, P. G. (2013).
Leadership: Theory and practice
(6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Rein, S. (2010). Three keys to improving your strategic thinking. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2010/11/09/strategic-thinking-innovation-creativity-leadership-managing-rein.html

Reis, M. (2010).
A manager’s guide to human behavior.
New York, NY: AMACOM.

Santos, A., Hayward, T., & Ramos, H. M. (2012). Organizational culture, work and personal goals as predictors of employee well-being.
Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 16
(1), 25-48.

Seaman, J. T., Jr., & Smith, G. D. (2013). Your company’s history as a leadership tool.
Harvard Business Review, 91
(3), 3-10.

Soll, J. B., Milkman, K. L., & Payne, J. W. (2015). Outsmart your own biases.
Harvard Business Review, 93
(5), 64-71.

Soyer, E., & Hogarth, R. M. (2015). Fooled by experience.
Harvard Business Review, 93
(5), 72-77.

Stefano, S. F. (2005). Integrity, courage, empathy (ICE): Three leadership essentials.
Human Resources Planning, 28
(4), 5-7.

Zaccaro, S. J., & Klimoski, R. (2002). The interface of leadership and team processes.
Group and Organization Management, 27
(1):4-13.
References
(Mosher, 2015)
Self-awareness
Self-regulation
Motivation
Empathy
Social skill
(Goleman, 2011)
Path-goal theory
Participative style
Achievement-oriented

Transformational theory
Idealized influence
Intellectual stimulation
(Northouse, 2013)
Porter's five forces
Threat of new entry
Supplier power
Buyer power
Threat of substitution
Competitive rivalry
Competitive advantage
(Grant & Jordan, 2012)
Experienced-based decisions
(Soll et al., 2015; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
Outcome bias
(Bazerman & Moore, 2013; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
Availability bias
(Soll et al., 2015; Soyer & Hogarth, 2015)
Communication (Zaccaro & Klimoski, 2002)
Interdependence and trust (Reis, 2010)
Group goals (Adler et al., 2011)
Progress
Challenges
Pay inequities
Role models
Traditions
(Hill, 2013)
Align work and personal goals to promote sense of well-being
(Santos et al., 2012)
I
ntegrity
C
ourage
E
mpathy
(Stefano, 2005)
Full transcript