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The Key to Teacher Quality

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by

Lyn Winn

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of The Key to Teacher Quality

What is the
KEY
to
teacher quality
in Australia?

AITSL
has, together with other key players
,
developed
7 Professional Standards
aimed at

teacher quality, applicable across the 4 career stages of the teaching profession. (
Graduate
,
Proficient
,
Highly Accomplished
&
Lead
).

This framework focuses on
knowledge
,
practice
and
professional engagement
and it is to be
used, not only to raise the status of the
teaching profession in general, but also as
a benchmark for accountability and
professional development
purposes.



Professional Practice
3. Plan for and implement effective teaching & learning
4. Create & maintain supportive and safe learning environments
5. Assess, provide feedback and report on student learning




1.1 Physical, social and intellectual development and
characteristics of students
.
Graduate teachers are to demonstrate the above and
how these may affect learning.
As regards social development, young children are naturally self-focussed.
In early primary school, children learn that others may possess a different perspective on things.
As their thinking skills mature , they are then able to understand anothers point of view and finally appreciate a number of ways of looking at the same situation.
Planning opportunities for children to "put themselves in anothers shoes" help them to relate better to others and manage conflict more effectively and ultimately helps them to value individuals no matter how different they are.
Suggestions for supporting social development in young children:
SCHOOL
This can be done by .....
Taking into consideration the age of students e.g. the very young
planning a variety of short lessons
to maintain engagement
Limiting mat time
(sitting and listening) as long
periods would be inappropriate
& ineffectual
have the ability to forsee possible
classroom management issues and
cater accordingly e.g. strategically
positioning students at desks and
mat time; clapping/singing to gain or re-gain
class attention.
using Gardiners multiple intelligences
to engage and extend student's learning
MODEL
summary re
social development

Interpersonal Intelligence
Intrapersonal Intelligence

Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence
Musical/Kinesthetic Intelligence
Visual/Spatial Intelligence
Logical/Mathematical Intelligence
Characteristics of student learning that the graduate teacher needs to take into account are:
CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS
:
Know their individual learning styles. A learning style is" the way that a particular person begins to process, internalize and concentrate on new material" (Gremli 1996 p24). Howard Gardner's theory (1993) of multiple intelligences come to mind here.
Characteristics of students with learning disabilities could include:

Reading e.g.
confusion of similar words, difficulty using phonics and reading muti-syllable words
slow reading rate/ difficulty adjusting speed
difficulty with comprehension and retention but not with material presented orally
Writing e.g.
difficulty with sentence structure, poor grammar, omitted words
frequent spelling errors, letter reversals
difficulty copying from the board
poorly formed letters
The graduate teacher needs to be aware of the characteristics of
successful
&
struggling
students
lacks interest/makes continuous negative comments
does not complete work on time
fails to hand in set tasks/ unwilling to seek help
has poor sleep/eating habits
is constantly tired
appears overly anxious/down
self-critical/low self-esteem
lacks friends/does not socialise
socialises too much

is absent alot
Successful students:
generally have reasonable educational expectations, are motivated, involved and have a healthy sense of well-being.
1.2 Understand how students learn
Graduate teachers can demonstrate knowledge and understanding of research into how students learn and the implication for teaching
.
- Incorporate varied ,active learning
strategies to cater for diversity

provide supportive learning environments and varied learning experiences.
repetition(especially in younger
students), engagement,
motivation and reflection are
all keys to successful learning.

1.3 Students with diverse linquistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds
What does this mean
in practical terms?
struggling students
Referrals and Tracking
Advisor updated with progress of their applications (txt, email or diary alert.

Contact customer on Policy Accepted, Loading, documents issued, declined, outstanding underwriting issues (using customer preferred contact method).

Email/text to Advisor with customer name and policy number so they can contact the customer.
Effective Teaching Strategies for students with conductive hearing loss & things to note in general:
GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT
Know students and how they learn
Plan for and implement effective teaching and learning
.
Know the content
and how to teach
it.
Australian Professional
Standards for Teaching
1.Know students & how they learn.
Professional Knowledge

2. Know the content & how to teach it
Professional Engagement
6. Engage in professional learning
7. Engage professionally with colleagues, parents/carers and the community.

The 7 Standards are:
This presentation will focus on the first three standards as regards to the
graduate
teacher.
- Teach children about society

- Support and implement positive &
clear school rules as this helps
the learning of social rules, needs
and relationships and is thus a social
& emotional integrated curriculum in
its own right, thus aiding social
development.
Teaching by example - observation of behaviour standards by those around them.
Talk plus show through actions.
The standards underpin the accreditation of the initial teaching qualification for which the TRB(Teacher Registration Board) is responsible and the standards necessary to get from provisional to full licence registration.

set the scene
cooperation within the classroom ..This can be done by structuring cooperative learning activities and teaching students skills on how to work together effectively.
BULLYING
Deal promptly with discrimination & harassment. Teach children about stereotyping . Make it clear that these are unacceptable behaviours
.
1. Provide care & support by tuning into students needs. Listen and take students feelings into considertation.
2. Be deliberate to help them develop social skills by providing coaching and teaching and supervising them to solve day to day encounters themselves without "taking over".
3. Discuss moral issues with them , encouraging opinions and reasoning.
Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence
Gremli,J.(1996). Tuned into learning Styles.Music Educators Journal,83,4-27.
Gardner,H.(1993).Frames of mind: The Theory of multiple intelligences/10th Anniversary Edition.New York: Basic Books.
Maths e.g.
difficulty memorizing basic facts
confusion with numbers, sequence, operational symbols
difficulty with word problems
difficulty with reasoning and abstract concepts
Orally e.g
.
difficulty expressing ideas/ describing events or stories in proper sequence
Other e.g.
difficulty reading social situations/expressions/body language/sarcasm
disorientated
poor organization skills/ time management
difficulty following directions
Demonstrate knowledge of teaching strategies that are responsive to the learning strengths and needs of students from diverse linguistic, cultural, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds.
It means:

designing & implementing explicit learning experiences

selecting & using content and resources that are appropriate to the strengths and needs of individual children from diverse backgrounds

developing teaching activities to understand specific concepts

supporting differentiated learning e.g.through small group work/ scaffolding/ individualised learning plans etc.
Multicultural education
"is intended to decrease race,ethnicity, class and gender divisions by helping all students attain the knowledge, attitudes and skills they need in order to become active citizens in a democratic society and participate in social change" (Valdez,1999)
and the 21 Century.

"it is thus imperative that teachers learn how to recognize, honor and incorporate the personal abilities of students into their teaching strategies" (Gay,2000)



Gay,G.(2000).Culturally Responsive Teaching:Theory, Research and Practice.New York: Teachers College Press.
Valdez,A.(1999). Learning in Living Color: Using Literature to Incorporate Multicultural Education into the Primary Curriculum. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.


1.4. Strategies for teaching Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander students:
Demonstrtate broad knowledge and understanding of the impact of culture, cultural identity and linguistic background on the education of students from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander backgrounds.
2.4. Understand and Respect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to promote reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.
Demonstrate a broad knowledge of, understanding of and respect for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories, culture and languages.



-Respect (cultural knowledge/expertise)

- Respect (diversity & complexity of the many different Indigenous cultures that exist)

- Heed any protocols.

- Build strong, positive relationships.

- Classroom management - base teaching on a set of principles e.g. it is the right of every student in class to max. their learning.

- Do not use sarcasm, do not belittle , do not shout, respect is key.

- The way a teacher talks to her students is important as they are accustomed to a more egalitarian relationship with all people so do not talk down to them.

Likewise it is important to note that
:

- They are
less likely to adhere to the cultural school

values
as they have very strong family ties and it would be rare to find a student putting school goals ahead of family goals.

- Having a different
value system
may challenge their acceptance of school content and methods .

-
Conductive hearing loss (otitis media
), although not unique to Indigenous people, is prevalent amongst this community. It has been shown that there is a direct link between socio-economic factors and incidences of otitis media.Effectively this may impair language development, could be the cause of poor listening skills, problems with inattention and distraction, behaviours, issues with social skills,high drop out rates leading to poor employment prospects .
Modify the physical environment in & outside the
classroom to max. listening and learning :
- external noise is minimal/absent
- environment noise from equipment is minimal
- lighting is adequate ( no flickering fluoro)
- rubber tips can be put on desks and chairs
- use soft furnishings to reduce noise
- sound field amplification
- use a range of teaching methods e.g. whole group, one-on-one, small group, peer, scaffolding, "hands on" learning, educational games (especially
language games as Eng for many is their 2nd - 4th language) and create a print rich classroom.


Organise the students to max. learning by:
- taking into consideration seating arrangements
- wait for silence before speaking
- ensure students are paying attention
- face children when speaking
- negotiate culturally appropriate listening behaviours
- speak clearly
- pre-teach key words and concepts
- use routines
Things to note in general:

- Non eye-contact is polite behaviour and is regarded as a sign of respect. Strategy: stand next to such students as opposed to in front of them to minimise eye contact.
- Indigenous people are often naturally shy. They can easily be "shamed" or embarrassed by having attention drawn to them; suddenly being put on the spot; having to demonstrate in front of a group and having people stare /intently gazing at them. Be mindful of this as a graduate teacher.
- These children are less likely to answer questions in the classroom because traditionally their culture has been passed on through the telling of stories. As a teacher try to incorporate more "hands on" learning & a greater variety of practical experiences.
- As a teacher, expect highly from them." A good teacher views the children as people and not as objects of cultural disposition."
- They have a greater sense of autonomy and community spirit focusing more on the collective good rather than individual achievement.
- Important to note that Aboriginal English (AE) is very different to Standard Australian English (SAE). Make use of graphic organizers, co-operative learning groups ( success being based on group performance rather than individual students) and independent study for service learning(benefiting student and community at large) as these promote cultural values of Indigenous communities.
- Relate teaching/learning to the real world. This is a key feature
in the Aboriginal world view.( "stemming from the connectedness
to every living thing which is foundational
to their traditions, culture and spirituality.")
1.5 Differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students across the full range of abilities.


- Integrating Benjamin
Blooms Taxonomy
questions into lesson plans provide a
way to differentiate and extend student learning.

- Using
higher order thinking skills & questioning
is key to differentiated instruction (It stretches students way of thinking and processing information).

- Differentiation is responsive teaching and means
proactively planning
for success of all students, "taking into consideration
Vygotsky's zone of proximal development
, understanding the
different learning

styles (Gardner)
and by implementing
authentic assessment"
( both formative and summative)
Differentiation can affect the
:

-
conten
t
of what is to be taught/learnt

-
process
( alternate paths to
explore concepts)

-
product
(the outcome)
Practically, this could mean
:

-
using interactive websites
which have educational games at different levels of learning e.g. Multiplication.com & Thinkfun

-
Using group lessons


-
Using group discussions
e.g. using the QUILT method of teaching.

-
Using task cards/centres


-
Varying the speed and delivery
of instruction -
Using tiered assignments


- Providing
targeted learning experiences
-
Compacting the curriculum

-
Selecting and modifying resources
according to needs and goals.

-
Personalise learning goals
according to needs/readiness.

- Ensuring that all students are
engaged in mentally
demanding tasks.


"Differentiated instruction is teaching with student variance in mind. It is tailor based on individualdifference and affects pace, depth of knowledge & understanding and student interest." Knowledge of each students background, experiences,interests, readiness and learning needs is crucial.
1.6 Strategies to support
full participation of students with
disability.
This is done by demonstrating a broad knowledge and understanding of legislative requirements and teaching strategies that support
participation and learning of
students with disability.
Includes:


1. Moral Rights (Faith)

2. Legal Rights (Australian

Legislation)


3. Human Rights (International

Conventions)
LEGISLATIVE
REQUIREMENTS:
Disability Discrimination Act 1992

Disability Standards for Education 2005

UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with a Disability (2008)
Examples of some Teaching strategies that support
students with a disability are:
Visual Disabilities:
1.Preferential seating in
the classroom
2.Use large print
3.Allow additional
time/provide printed copies
4.Audiotape
5.Verbalise
everything
AUTISM:
- Non-overstimulating
environment
- Structured environment with
predictable routines.
- Fewer choices
- Be aware of teacher voice level
- Limit physical contact
- promote social skill
development
- eliminate stress
- visual learners (use
signs & pictures
HEARING DISABILITY:
- Provide preferential seating - if using videos, show before
- Use visual cues presenting information
- Face students directly - Use alternate testing
- Emphasize key points methods
- repeat/rephrase - pre-teach vocabulary
- Highlight texts - Minimize background noise
- Use peer tutoring - Simplify vocabulary
- Use captioned videos - Use pre-printed outlines of material

Lacking
organization
skills:
- Use graphic
organizers
- Use semantic
mapping
- Use planners
and
calendars
- Teach time
management
skills
- Post
sequence of
events
- Teach the use
of folders &
notebooks
- Teach how to
clean desk.
DIFFICULTY RETAINING &
RETRIEVING INFORMATION:
- Use multiple ways to teach (V-A-K)
- Use cues/prompts
- Use frequent repetition
- Break instructions down into
smaller steps
- Show links using graphs, outlines, webbing.
- Use colour coding techniques to link relationships/concepts
- Teach mnemonics as a
memory tool
- Use rhythm, music & movement
2 KNOW THE CONTENT AND HOW TO TEACH IT.


2.1 Content and teaching strategies of the teaching area.

The graduate teacher must be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the concept, substance and structure of the content and teaching strategies of the teaching area.
2.2 Content selection
and organization.

The graduate teacher must be able to organize the content into an effective leaning and teaching sequence.
Scope and sequence is crucial

An example of this is found on the ACARA
website re AC Maths
http://www.australianurriculum.edu.au/Australian%20Curriculum.pdf?Type=0&s=M&e=ScopeAndSequence

2.3 Curriculum, assessment and
Reporting.
The graduate teacher must be able to
use curriculum, assessment and reporting
knowledge to design learning sequences and
lesson plans.
This is done by:

- Using the National Australian Curriculum, where
applicable & the SACSA framework ( as a guide)

- Using both
formative
( e.g. DIBELS, KWL charts, pre-tests, classroom observations, rubrics, journal entries, checklists, likert scales) &
summative
assessments (end of unit testing, quizzes, projects)

- Using e.g. maps of development in the First Steps Reading/Writing program.
2.5 Literacy &
Numeracy Strategies.
Know and understand iteracy and numeracy teaching strategies and their application in teaching areas,
Literacy strategies:
These could include:
ENG:
- Text processing strategies
e.g. predicting, recognising words to work out unknown words, reading-on, re-reading.

- Comprehension strategies
e.g. activating and using prior knowledge, making inferences, predicting, visualising by creating mental images, integrating ideas, critical reflection.

SPELLING
:
- Development is cumulative across the curriculum.
- Use onset, rhyme, word construction families, nominalisation.
Numeracy strategies:
- Use interactive whiteboard resources (
IWB
)
- Iphone/ipad numeracy
apps
-
whole school approac
h
- Adopt a
differentiated
approach
-
Explicitly teach

strategies
to approach mathematical problems
- Engage the students in active
discussion
,
reflection
and active
construction
, to extend their thinking by building on to their contributions and questions and to solve misconceptions.
- Use a range of
scaffolding
practices
- Use
materials
that are based on the developmental stage of students & maths being explored, are socially & culturally inclusive and appropriate to the learning context.

First Steps in Mathematics
is a resource book & one of many professional programs that exist to help implement and evaluate the Maths curriculum. It icludes strategies/activities, maps of development, progress markers, key understandings, lessons etc.
Research shows clearly that a person must be engaged to learn. Children learn by actively participating in observing, speaking, writing, istening, thinking, drawing and doing. Learning is enhanced when potential implications, applications and benefits are seen.
"Strong literacy & numeracy skills lay the foundation for all students to succeed at school and in all areas of life."
"Quality teahing and quality school leadership play an important part in student
outcomes in these areas."
2.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
The graduate teacher must be able to implement teaching strategies to expand curriculum learning opportunities for students.
This is crucial as ICT implementation can aid time management and allow e.g. an entire class to engage creatively with a single concept/idea in a short amount of time ( as well as learn IT skills).
There are many IT programs suitable for the classroom e.g.:

ComicLife MiniMash
Inspiration Maps
iCardSort Tapose
Animation Creation
ShareBoard Prezi
3. Plan for and implement
effective teaching and
learning
- Through establishing challenging learning goals
- Throgh planning, structuring and
sequencing learning programs
- Through using a range of teaching strategies
- Through careful selection and use of resources
- Through using effective classroom communication
- Through constantly evaluating and improving on teaching programs
- Through engaging parents/carers the education process.
As stated earlier, this can be done by combining Vygotsky's zone of proximal development with blooms taxonomy to create a mentally challenging experience for each student.

Engagement, motivation , learner profiles as well as the learning environment are all key factors in this.
It is important that we, as teachers, set our students up for success.

Set high expectations, articulate clear goals .
Some teaching strategies not already mentioned could include:

- Didactic (adult controlled), Group (inter-active) & Maieutic (child-centred).

- Cooperatie learning strategies e.g. jigsaw

- Direct instruction - Role-play

- Problem solving activities - Modelling

- Integrated teaching across subject areas - Enquiry Method

- Daily re-looping of previously learned material

- Hands on activities e.g. experiments

- Small group instruction - Inclusive teaching strategies

- Promote engagement through active learning (question & answer)
- Engage through
technology
(podium based computers, wireless, real-time response systems e.g. clickers, web-based tools e.g. blogs, online forums, podcasts, e-books, googledocs, educational games.)

-
Service learning
( encouraging the ability to help others and grow academically e.g. helping out at a soup kitchen is linked to learning about homelessness/poverty/nutrition. Cleaning up a park can be linked to geography/environmental issues.) Reflection is key here.

- Engage through
projects
(connect learning to students lives

- Engage through
Social and

Emotional learning
( e.g. build intrinsic motivation )

- In primary schools, the use of
colour, manipulatives
and
props
are essential to maintain engagement.

Verbal Communication Strategies:

- singing (e.g. to gain attention)
- whispering/talking quietly ( e.g. to "force" listening)
- the way a teacher enunciates and pronounces
words might communicate a special "message" to
the class
- short, firm instructions
- using student's name
- repeating instructions

Non-verbal Communication Strategies:

- body language e.g. by crossing my arms students
might be on the defensive.
- hand gestures/ nodding/shaking of the head/eye contact/facial expressions/ pointing
- touching a shoulder may regain focus when circulating around the room .

Methods / strategies for Evaluating Teaching, Programs and Units:

- Student Evaluation and Feedback

- Peer Observation and Review

- Self - Observation, Self - Assessment and
Critical Reflection. (What worked well, what
did not, next time I will......) Teachers are to be aware of their own strenghths and weaknesses.

- Student assessment tasks and attainment
of learning outcomes (Using student work
to evaluate teaching and the curriculum)
Engaging Parents/Carers in the Educative Process.

Some strategies include:

- Empowering key parents to build parental engagement in the school

- Involving parents in school based projects e.g. drama productions, garden/research projects.

- Involving parents in school life e.g. help in the library, tuckshop, listening to reading in the classrooms

- Teachers can also use student tasks to involve families in student learning e.g. interview parents/grandparents regarding technology advancements etc.
The End
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Full transcript