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How Can It Be That Scientific Knowledge Changes Over Time?

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Solana Huang

on 18 November 2014

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Transcript of How Can It Be That Scientific Knowledge Changes Over Time?

Technology: Genetics and Heredity
How Can It Be That Scientific Knowledge Changes Over Time?
AP Euro

Scientific knowledge changes also because the support of many different hypotheses for the same set of data
Ignoring the principle of simplicity
The gold foil experiment and alternate explanations
-> would have led to a change in scientific theories

Intrinsic motivation may have contributed to advances in science

Changes in scientific knowledge also due to practical concerns
Illness, war, need for fuel and food

Aspects of science do NOT change - eg the scientific method has stayed more or less constant since its conception, Law of conservation of momentum and Law of cooling are applicable in all scenarios
Counterclaim
Democritus created the idea of the atom
Dalton developed the "modern atomic theory"
JJ Thomson created the plum pudding model
Millikan found the charge of the electron with the oil experiment
Rutherford's gold foil experiment showed the nucleus was a tightly packed positive core
Evolution of Atomic Theory
TOK Analysis

1) All matter is made of atoms.
2) Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
3) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
4) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
5) A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.


Dalton's Atomic Theory
Niels Bohr - said atoms had electron orbital shells
Frederick Soddy - discovered isotopes
Heisenberg - uncertainty principle
de Broglie - introduced particle/wave duality of matter
Schrodinger's Equation
Quarks and leptons
Atomic Theory Today

1) All matter is made of atoms.
2) Atoms are not indivisible (protons, electrons, quarks, etc) and are indestructible.
3) All atoms of a given element are not identical in mass and properties (isotopes).
4) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
5) A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.
TOK Analysis
TOK Analysis
Conclusion
Connection to Sense Perception
Connection to History
Science requires perception of sensory stimuli to make observations about the experiment,
science becomes subjective

Physical limitations, incredulity, and lack of technology prevented people from seeing atoms before, which is why people did not believe in atoms.

Dalton expanded on the work of Joseph Louis Proust and Democritus.

Democritus' early idea of an atom was spread to Dalton through the maintenance of old texts containing Democritus' works

Modern atomic theory - accumulation of various scientists' works, works that were used because they were preserved in texts (history)

Connection to Math
Science cannot be proved conclusively because it is proved inductively.
Math proofs, like scientific claims, cannot be proved inductively.

Because of this, science continues to change as refutations and exceptions are found for present theories and hypotheses, as in the case of the atomic theory.

Since we lack access to all information, our view of the universe is flawed and open to change as we gain more information
Bibliography
Gregor Mendel & his peas
X-ray crystallography
developed in the 1950's
Double Helix Model of DNA
Rosalind Franklin/ Watson & Crick
Recombinant DNA
Developed in 1970, this was the cutting from one organism and insertion in another.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Kary Mullis (1983)
creates trillion of copies of specific segments of DNA to be experimented on
First gen sequencing in 1977, PhiX0174
Human Genome Project
2001- first draft of the entire human genetic code

Early studies of anatomy concluded that men were superior to women because the female skeleton had smaller skulls and wider pelvic bones.




• Reason : men’s syllogism consist of 2 premises and 1 false conclusion , used to justify the belief of male superiority = confirmation bias .


Sense perception: Scientists (generally male) made observations that women’s skulls are smaller and pelvic bones are bigger

Emotion: They used biological differences between the sexes as evidence for female inferiority.

Link to the Human Sciences: Psychology

•psychodynamic
•behavioral
•cognitive
•humanistic
•biological
•sociocultural



Phrenology(Franz J. Gall)
WWI
WWII
Computers

Change over Time
“The biological approach to psychological matters has integrated with and run parallel to the rest of psychological thought since early Greek times- the Greek physician Galen suggested that personality and temperament may be linked to the levels of body fluids such as blood and bile in the body.”

New technology in the form of brain scans: fMRI, EEG, PET CAT scans enables researchers to get new information by extending our sense perception
In conclusion, science can change over time because people’s perspectives and technologies evolve and because of the accumulation of data and knowledge.

Improved technology aids the senses and allows people to gain more insight into things the human eye cannot usually see. By doing this, it provides more information (eg. genetics)

Because human emotions play a part in gaining scientific information, the prevailing societal ideas of the time can influence the way science is studied. As these ideas change the way science related to these ideas is gathered changes (eg: human anatomy and the role of women)

The use of previous ideas to expand onto new ideas is a common feature of many areas of knowledge, science included. In the case of atomic theory, old ideas even dating back to the Greco-Roman period are evident in modern science.

Scientific knowledge will continue to expand as technology advances and as people's views change: there are a myriad of areas that require investigation, such as electro-convulsive shock therapy, which works in combating depression but is not understood; or events that happened in the past, like the flu epidemic in 1919 - how it spread, or why it went away.



Works Cited

"Atomic Theory." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2014. <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0905226.html>.

Buescher, Lee. "Atomic Structure Timeline." Atomic Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Nov. 2014. <http://atomictimeline.net/index.php>.

Childs, Peter E. "John Dalton." Chemistry Explained. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2014. <http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Co-Di/Dalton-John.html>.

De Leon, Nelson. "Rutherford Model of the Atom." IUN. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://www.iun.edu/~cpanhd/C101webnotes/modern-atomic-theory/rutherford-model.html>.

Iyer, Sabarish. "Quantum Mechanics." Socratic. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2014. <http://socratic.org/questions/how-did-quantum-mechanics-change-the-bohr-model-of-the-atom>.

Nave, R. "Quarks." Hyperphysics. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/particles/quark.html>.

“The Behaviorist Approach to Psychology.” Handout.Stanton College Preparatory School, Krieger AP Psychology.Jacksonville, Florida. n.d. Print


“The Cognitive Approach to Psychology.” Handout.Stanton College Preparatory School, Krieger AP Psychology.Jacksonville, Florida. n.d. Print

“The Physiological Approach to Psychology.” Handout.Stanton College Preparatory School, Krieger AP Psychology.Jacksonville, Florida. n.d. Print

"The Structure of DNA." Principles of Biology I. Bio2107 (Houghton '14), n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2014. <http://biology200.gsu.edu/houghton%2704/2107%20%2714/lecture24.html>.

"Watson and Crick." UIC. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2014. <http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/mike/spring2003/watsoncrick.htm>.

Yudell, Michael, and Rob DeSalle. "The History of Genetics." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/inthebalance/archives/ourgenes/could_we.html>.



Just as historical perspectives changed, so did psychological perspectives. This led to revolutions in the way people experimented and interpreted information in both areas.
Through the development of technology, there has been an increase and change in scientific knowledge over time. Former beliefs of scientific knowledge (such as that of genetics and heredity) have been built upon and advanced to create the knowledge we have today.
Connection to Sense Perception
Perception plays a large role in scientific knowledge and stimuli is received differently by every person, therefore creating an inevitable bias in all research.


Reduction of researcher bias was introduced with new technology to aid scientific research.
Connection to Language:
Scientists develop universal scientific terms, and use Greek and Latin terminology to:
avoid the misconceptions that can occur when vernacular languages are translated
and to avoid needing to reference thousands of different terms for the same observed phenomenon


These laws, though proved inductively, have held true since their discovery.

Are similar to mathematical axioms (fundamental truths) because they are supposed to represent aspects of the universe and because they are used to formulate hypotheses, like how axioms are used to support claims.

Despite this they still may be subject to change in the future.
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