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Transcript of Camps
Calais Jungle: January 15 2016
‘While shooting for their independent production 'Calais: Welcome to the Jungle. ' photographer Teun Voeten and video artist Maaike Engels were mugged by three refugees armed with pepper spray and a big knife. Luckily, nothing happened and a few other migrants from the camp in Calais came to our rescue.’ - place of exception where these things can happen without consequense to a certain extent.
Police tear gas attacks in Calais Jungle 07/01/2016
Shows the problematic placement of the police in this situation. On one hand their presence around the camp could be said to have constant police protection, but the video above shows the police attacking the migrants. Questions whether the Jungle could be seen as a sanctuary or whether it actually makes them more vulnerable to police attacks/failure to prevent attacks.
Calais Migrants: Look inside the ‘Jungle’ migrant camp
Shows the self-imposed racial and ethnic segregation. Shows the features of everyday life.
Church and Mosque Bulldozed in Calais Jungle Refugee Camp Feb 1st
“Volunteers in the French refugee camp in Calais say authorities bulldozed two of the symbolic centers of France's Calais Jungle migrant camp on Monday morning.”
The Migrant Jungle in Calais was created as a replica community and a shelter for people who have been forced to leave their homes and attempted to enter Britain.
A temporary living space emerged with some of the features of an organized town or city, such as shops, cafes, churches etc.
Becoming a seemingly permanent fixture.
There is no gate or fence surrounding and unlike some of the other examples of camps, there are no physical factors such as walls or security, to contain the inhabitants. They are there on a voluntary basis, to a certain extent, they are not being held against their will as a form of punishment or detention, they simply have nowhere else to go.
In terms of ideological boundaries, an invisible wall means nothing is stopping you from entering the camp except the perception of the possible danger within the space. Similarly no physical wall means you can leave, but there are ideological factors which hold you back - economic, education etc. Perception of the inhabitants by the people outside may also prevent them from leaving.
The people who inhabit this ‘Jungle’ have been excluded from their original homes through no fault of their own, as many have traveled from war zones. Within the camp there is a self-imposed segregation by race and ethnicity, e.g. the ‘Ethiopian part’ ‘Sudanese part.’ (BBC video)
Myanmar - Muslim Minority Concentration Camp
The Rohingya Muslims live in Rakhine State in Sittwe, Myanmar and have been labelled the 'most persecuted refugees in the world' by Amnesty International.
The Government insist that the Rohingya do not belong to Myanmar (referring to them as 'Bangalis') thus, stripping them of their basic rights.
More than 140,000 Roghingya have been placed in a crowded Government 'camp'. Labelled by some as a 'modern day concentration camp'.
The Camp is completely shut off guarded by Buddhist police and recently all foreign aid workers were expelled from the area.
The leading Government official in Rokhine state declared:
"there is no such thing as Rohingya in our state".
Relation to Agamben?
We can draw upon Agamben's notion of the camp as the
ultimate paradoxical space of exception
in which the exception becomes the norms:
The Rohingya remain in the camp within Myanmar and yet are denied existance by the Government.
The Rohingya have been reduced to
Which as Agamben highlights facilitates and legimitises the use of violence against such people.