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Communication of the network
Transcript of Communication of the network
is the process to interleave the pieces of separate conversation together on the network
Component of the Network
Communicating over the network
Proponent of the
People or Devices generates data to be transmitted
What is a Network?
It is a
data or information networks capable of carrying many different types of communications,
traditional computer data
interactive voice, video, and entertainment products.
Describe how messages are communicated
Data is sent across a network in small “chunks” called
Hardware of the network
Laptop, PC, Switch,
router, access point cables..etc
End devices and Intermediary devices
Khoula Al Sadi
Intermediary network devices
Connect the individual hosts to the network and can connect multiple individual networks to form an internetwork.
Elements of Communication
Introduction to Networking
Receive the message and interprets it
Consists of the media that provides the pathway over which the message can travel from source to destination.
Communicating the messages
:Any device that allows us to interface with the network.End devices are referred to as
and are either the source or destination of a message.
Role of end devices:
is a computer system that access the service on another computer remotely by accessing the network .
that have software installed that enables them to provide information and services, like e-mail or web pages, to other hosts on the network.
Both client and server
Devices that make up the network
Media that connect the devices
Messages that are carried across the network
Rules and processes that govern network communications
Tools and commands for constructing and maintaining networks
Computers (work stations, laptops, file servers, web servers)
Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners, PDAs)
1.Network Access Devices
(Hubs, switches, and wireless access points)
Communication Servers and Modems
Example of Intermediary Devices
Metallic wires within cables
Glass or plastic fibers (fiber optic cable)
Processes running on the intermediary network devices perform these functions:
Regenerate and retransmit data signals
Maintain information about what pathways exist through the network and internetwork
Notify other devices of errors and communication failures
Direct data along alternate pathways when there is a link failure
Classify and direct messages according to QoS priorities
Permit or deny the flow of data, based on security settings
Criteria for choosing a network media are:
The distance the media can successfully carry a signal.
The environment in which the media is to be installed.
The amount of data and the speed at which it must be transmitted.
The cost of the media and installation
Are the communication programs, called software, that run on the networked devices. Ex:
Web hosting and e-mail hosting
End Devices and their Role in the Network
Networks infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of:
The size of the area covered
The number of users connected
The number and types of services available
An individual network usually spans a single geographical area,
providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure,
such as a single business, campus or region.
Individual organizations usually
through a telecommunications service provider network
These networks that connect LANs in geographically separated locations are referred to as Wide Area Networks (WANs)
A global mesh of interconnected networks
Owned by large public and private organizations, such as government agencies or industrial enterprises, and are reserved for their exclusive use.
The most well-known and widely used publicly-accessible internetwork is the
The Internet is created by the interconnection of networks belonging to Internet Service Providers (
Used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization, and is designed to be accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization.
Specialized terminology is used when discussing how each of these devices and media connect to each other. Important terms to remember are:
Network Interface Card -
A NIC, or LAN adapter, provides the physical connection to the network at the PC or other host device. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC.
- A connector or outlet on a networking device where the media is connected to a host or other networking device.
- Specialized ports on an internetworking device that connect to individual networks. Because routers are used to interconnect networks, the ports on a router are referred to network interfaces.
The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting.
By showing a list of routers traversed, it allows the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular
destination on the network or across internetworks.
Each router represents a point where one network
connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through.
The number of routers is known as the number of "hops" the data traveled from source to destinatio
Trace Route to Remote Server
1. At the command line prompt, type:
Number of hops to
Destination IP Address
Rules that governs Communication
Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols.
a protocol suite
A group of inter-related protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called
These protocols are implemented in software and hardware that is loaded on each host and network device.
Networking protocol suites describe processes such as:
How and when error and system messages are passed between devices
The format or structure of the message
The method by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks
The setup and termination of data transfer sessions
A standards organization, such as
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
Using Protocol suits
Interaction between a web server and a web browser
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Internet Protocol (IP)
Network Access Protocols:
Describe two primary functions, data link management and the physical transmission of data on the media
There are benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations. Using a layered model:
Assists in protocol design, because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below.
Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together.
Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below.
Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities.
A reference model
provides a common reference for maintaining consistency within all types of network protocols and services
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
model is the most widely known internetwork reference model. It is used for data network design, operation specifications, and troubleshooting.
TCP/IP and OSI models
are the primary models used when discussing network functionality, designers of network protocols, services, or devices can create their own models to represent their products.
A complete communication process includes these steps:
1. Creation of data at the Application layer of the originating source end device
2. Segmentation and encapsulation of data as it passes down the protocol stack in the source end device
3. Generation of the data onto the media at the Network Access layer of the stack
4. Transportation of the data through the internetwork, which consists of media and any intermediary devices
5. Reception of the data at the Network Access layer of the destination end device
6. Decapsulation and reassembly of the data as it passes up the stack in the destination device
7. Passing this data to the destination application at the Application layer of the destination end device
2.4 Using Layered Model
2.4.2 Communication Process
nit & Encapsulation
The general term for the PDU used at the Application layer
Transport Layer PDU
Internetwork Layer PDU
Network Access Layer PDU
A PDU used when physically transmitting data over the medium
Sending and Receiving Process
2.4.7 OSI Model
OSI model provides an extensive list of functions and services that can occur at each layer.
It also describes the interaction of each layer with the layers directly above and below it
was designed by the
to provide a framework on which to build a suite of open systems protocols.
The vision was that this set of protocols would be used to develop an international network that would not be dependent on proprietary systems.
al network that would not be dependent on proprietary systems.
2.4.7 OSI Layer Description
Comparing OSI With TCP/IP Model
Are used as references for application software
developers and vendors to produce products
that need to access networks for communications
Includes a number of protocols that provide specific functionality to a variety of end user applications.
Describe general services or functions that manage individual conversations between source and destination hosts.
These functions include
acknowledgment, error recovery, and sequencing.
At this layer, the TCP/IP protocols Transmission Control Protocol
and User Datagram Protocol
provide the necessary functionality
Addressing the Network
At the Network Access Layer, the TCP/IP protocol suite does not specify which protocols to use when transmitting over a physical medium; it only describes the handoff from the Internet Layer to the physical network protocols.
The OSI Layers 1 and 2 discuss the necessary procedures to access the media and the physical means to send data over a network.