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Mendel and Classic genetics
Transcript of Mendel and Classic genetics
experiment Principle of segregation First Experiments Independent
assortment Two Genes Garden Pea Experiments History Mendel Sex linked traits Genes influencing each other Genetic Interactions Do all alleles play by the Dominant or Recessive rules Beyond Mendel Classic Genetics
The two genes for each trait separate during sex cell (GAMETE) production Principle of Segregation What did people know about heredity?
Traits were passed from parent to child
You could breed animals and plants to have advantageous traits
What did people NOT know about heredity?
How traits were passed from parent to child
Why traits sometimes ‘skipped’ a generation
Why all the animals or plants you were breeding didn’t have the traits you wanted them to Historical Perspective GENOTYPE-an individual’s genetic makeup for a trait (usually expressed as the two ALLELES) Useful Vocabulary Purple AA The seven character differences studied by Mendel. (After S. Singer and H. Hilgard, The Biology of People. Copyright © 1978 by W. H. Freeman and Company.) He studied 7 characteristics of the pea plants He removed the male parts of the flower and artificially fertilized the female part of the flower Gregor Mendel was trained in science and was interested in the heredity of agricultural plant He could control the heredity of the peas (children) produced by the plant HOMOZYGOUS-an individual with two of the same ALLELES for a trait HETEROZYGOUS-an individual with two different ALLELES for a trait PHENOTYPE-an individual’s physical appearance for a trait AA aa Aa Aa aa White For each character, an organism inherits two genes, one from each parent Alternative versions of genes (ALLELES) account for variation in inherited traits The RECESSIVE ALLELE has no effect on the individual’s appearance If the two alleles differ within an individual, then the DOMINANT ALLELE is fully expressed in the individual’s appearance. Ratios of offspring expected A a A a AA Aa Aa aa tacagctcatctctta tacagctcatctctta tacagctcatctctta tacagctcatctctta white or no protein purple protein or Dependent
assortment YR yr yr 3/4=Yellow round
1/4=Green wrinkled YR 1/4=YYRR
1/4=yyrr Molecular Reason for independent assortment Molecular Reason for dependent assortment Humans Blood Types Nutrition and height
Exercise and muscle mass
Sun and skin shade
Learning and IQ MUTATIONS-changes in the gene lead to different forms of the gene (ALLELES) Where do Alleles come from? These traits vary in increments along a continuum
Example-height, skin color
Tigers-abnormal coloring, and crossed-eyes, photophobia, maybe decreased clotting ablilty
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_tiger#Genetics) Genes and traits When one gene affects the expression of another gene multiple effects of one gene Cystic fibrosis, missing digestive enzymes,
trouble breathing, excessive mucus in lungs,
frequent pneumonia infections
http://www.ygyh.org/cf/cause.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cystic_fibrosis EPISTASIS POLYGENIC
INHERITANCE When many genes are responsible for a trait complex interactions Pleiotropy Epigenetic interaction lick your rat pups early and often! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABO_blood_group_system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABO_blood_group_system Compiled by Olga O. Blumenfeld in March 2011. Data is assembled from that listed in the BGMUT database for each allele. For literature references, see the allele-specific details on the BGMUT site. Alleles are indicated by the IDs used in the BGMUT database. An allele with ID xxx can be accessed at the database website with the URI http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gv/rbc/xslcgi.fcgi?cmd=bgmut/allele_details&id=XXX. The table(s) here may not include all alleles currently listed in the database. Please address any question or suggestion to firstname.lastname@example.org. Why was Mendel able to determine how genetic information was passed on when no one else had been able to?
If brown eyes are a dominant trait, and you and your spouse have brown eyes, is it possible for your child to have blue eyes? Why?
If white and black hair color is co-dominant in cats, and you mate a white female to a black male cat, what color will the kittens be?
Where did the allele for blood type O come from? Questions to Consider Why can a single gene have multiple effects?
Why are men more likely to inherit color blindness?
Do you think hair color in humans is the result of many genes or just one gene, Why?
Give some examples of genes being influenced by environment. Questions to consider Blending Inheritance because genes (proteins) have many jobs Gene interactions Genes
Environment http://learning.covcollege.ac.uk/content/Jorum/GMB_Interactions-between-alleles-and-loci_LM-1.2-16-Jan08/page61.htm https://lms.sfcollege.edu/section/content/default.asp?WCI=pgDisplay&WCU=CRSCNT&ENTRY_ID=d99f760b7a8925211042e498889b0221