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Samurai and Shogun
Transcript of Samurai and Shogun
The Life and Education of Samurai
The daily life of a samurai would start at the crack of dawn, usually with horseback riding and archery lessons. They would come into battle on horseback, so training for it was compulsory.
Created by: Matthew Stepanek, Kinaar Desai, Zac MacDonald and Tyler Rodgers
Chapter 8 Lesson 3
Samurai and Shogun
As students, samurai would train with wooden swords called bokken. When they became true samurai, they would receive a daisho, which consists of a long katana, and a short wakizashi, a kanabo, a yumi bow, and a naginata.
A kanabo was a long, cylindrical wooden club, studded with iron spikes.
Katanas were incredibly sharp, long, and slim swords
A wakizashi was the equally lethal
counterpart to the
katana, only a bit
A naginata is a tall staff with a sharp blade on the end.
Finally, to complete their day, students would indulge their minds in meditation and mental exercises.
Shogun and Daishyo
Next, they would go to martial arts training. They practiced wrestling and jujitsu, which is basically a less formal version of modern judo. In the afternoon, they would sharpen and hone their most utilized skill, sword fighting.
Social Structure of Japan
Feudalism in Ancient Japan
The power of the central government was experiencing economic atrophy.
As a result, government started to lose its control over the wealthy populace.
In return, these landowners refused to pay taxes in addition to having their own private arsenal of samurai loyal to only them.
Samurai were hired by Daimyo to protect themselves from attack
Taira and Ninamoto had vast samurai warriors of their disposal
The Daimyo Powers Increased as government's decreased.
The minor landowners pledged loyalty to major landowners (called vassals) for protection.
Peasants and Artisans
Three Samurai Unite Japan
* The Emperor and Shogun
Shogun means "supreme commander of the army"
A shogun ruled on the emperor's behalf
Minamoto Yoritomo became the first shogun in 1192
Japan would be under a shogunate, or military government for nearly 700 years
* The Samurai and the Warrior Code
Samurai were fearsome warriors
Bushido-"The Way of the Warrior"
Based on chivalry, frugality, loyalty, martial arts mastery, and honor unto death
They vowed to fight for their lord, even if it meant that they could not protect their own family
Mid-1500s Daimyo leader named Oda Nobunaga began to unite Ancient Japan
He recongnized the usefulness of guns during war.
With guns he defeated armies larger than his own.
By his death in 1582 he controled nearly half of Japan.
Took Control in 1582.
Toyotomi Hideyosh was Nobunga's best general and succeded him.
Under Nobunga he rose from a common soldier to a military leader.
When he died in 1598 he controlled nearly all of Japan.
He gained control throght force and political alliances.
After his death his generals fought for control.
Tokugawa Leyasu was the winner in 1603.
He founded a dynasty that would last till 1868.
He established Tokyo.
He ended all ties with europeans because he was worried about too much European Influence in Japan.
Under him Japan became isolated.
A samurai warrior in the sixteenth and seventeenth century Japan probably lived in the large castle of the lord, or Daimyo, he served.
Daimyo built castles primarily for defense but they also served, as a center to administer the lord's estate.
These castles, and the towns that were built around them, housed servants, soldiers, officials, and the samurai's family.
At this, many different activites dominated castle life.
Himeji Castle dates to 1333, when Akamatsu Norimura built a fort on top of Himeyama hill. The fort was dismantled and rebuilt as Himeyama Castle in 1346, and then remodeled into Himeji Castle two centuries later. Himeji Castle was then significantly remodeled in 1581 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who added a three-story castle keep. In 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu awarded the castle to Ikeda Terumasa for his help in the Battle of Sekigahara, and Ikeda completely rebuilt the castle from 1601 to 1609, expanding it into a large castle complex. Several buildings were later added to the castle complex by Honda Tadamasa from 1617 to 1618. For over 400 years, Himeji Castle has remained intact, even throughout the extensive bombing of Himeji in World War II, and natural disasters such as the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake.
Fortresses have been built in Japan since early times. A particular need for castles arouse in the 15th century after the central government's authority had weakened and Japan had fallen into the chaotic era of warring states (sengoku jidai). During that era, Japan consisted of dozens of small independent states which fought each other and built small castles on top of mountains for defense purposes.
The Himeji castle may have looked like this
When Oda Nobunaga reestablished a central authority over Japan in the second half of the 16th century, and his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi completed the reunification of Japan, many larger castles were built across the country. Unlike the earlier castles, they were built in the plains or on small hills in the plains, where they served as a region's administrative and military headquarters and a symbol of authority. They became the centers of "castle towns".
After the end of the feudal age (1868), many castles were destroyed as unwelcome relics of the past, and even more were lost in World War II. Only about a dozen original castles, i.e. castles that date from the feudal era (before 1868), survive today. Furthermore, several dozen castles were reconstructed over the past decades - mostly using concrete instead of traditional building materials.
History of Castles
Japan's first shogun
Janan and by his
death in 1582 he
controlled half of
all of Japan by his death
Leyasu wins control
of Japan and is
lasts until 1868
went into a period
of solitude until the
1640's Christianity is banned in Japan
Himeji Castle is the largest and most visited castle in Japan, and it was registered in 1993 as one of the first UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the country. The area within the middle moat of the castle complex is a designated Special Historic Site and five structures of the castle are also designated National Treasures.Along with Matsumoto Castle and Kumamoto Castle, Himeji Castle is considered one of Japan's three premier castles. In order to preserve the castle buildings, it is currently undergoing restoration work that is expected to continue for several years.
Japanese Social Pyramid