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Transcript of Andrew Jackson
Jackson was still grieving from his wife, Rachel’s death which occurred shortly after his nomination. Jackson was the first president nominated from the working-class background which many citizens liked. But to powerful Washington insiders, Jackson came off as uneducated and not prepared. Jackson first did a “rotation of office” where he fired many officials and rehired new supporters.
Jackson believed the Bank of America was unconstitutional and a threat to individual liberty. Jackson vetoed a passing of a bill to recharter the bank in 1832. Jackson removed the federal deposits in the Bank, despite the House of Representatives’ want to keep the money in the Bank. When the Treasury Secretary William John Duane refused to apply Jackson’s bank orders, Jackson fired him and replaced him with an attorney to do what he wanted. A party was then created who thought Jackson was using his authority improperly, called the Whig Party.
In 1831, abolitionsists embraced the doctrine of immediatism which was a commitment to begin the process of emancipation. In the late 1820s, there was a wave of religious revivals in the North which inspired slavery to be known as the greatest sin of all. Abolitionists launched a propaganda offensive in 1835 and produced millions of anti-slavery literary works. But abolitionist tracts were burned at U.S. mail because it enticed the slaves to revolt. But Jackson interveined and made it a violation towards federal law by censoring the mail to keep out anti-slavery material. Beginning in 1836, hundreds of antislavery petitions took place but southern congressmen quickly retaliated and demanded that free speech be repressed in the name of southern white security. This censorship was a gag rule, where it became a non-negotiable to discuss antislavery and take part in petitions. The gag rule soon became a stamp on the Democratic Party. President Van Buren failed to support a position, he was damned as being unsafe on the slavery issue and was not trusted by either side.
The Trail of Tears was a result of the Indian Removal Act which enabled state officials to override federal protection of Native Americans. First, President Jackson advised the Indians “to emigrate beyond the Mississippi or submit to the laws of those States.” In advising this, he pretended as though he wanted to protect the Native Americans from the vicious white people that wanted to drive them out of the land. However, he provided no help for them against the unruly white settlers. The Trail of Tears was the journey where thousands of Indians were forced to travel across the United States to Oklahoma, where many of them fell victim to the cold, hunger, disease, and callousness of the white people they met along the way. President Andrew Jackson was selfish in his want for the Native Americans to be removed from the South and specifically Georgia. It was morally unright for him to force them to leave their homes and trek across the country only for the desire of the people living there. The Cherokee were the most organized and advanced of the Indian nations. They had a society of small farmers with their own schools and newspapers however even they were stripped of all legal rights by the Georgia legislature and forced to leave. President Jackson used his power against the declaration that this is the “land of the free” and solely for his own selfish purposes.
President Jackson was born into a working class family and fought his way to the top solely on his own. He appealed to the typical worker which greatly helped him in the election of 1828. The election of 1828 focused on personalities and not political ideals, this helped Jackson over Adams because he was unpretentious. Andrew Jackson wanted aristocrats to be given the same rights as white men. He also encouraged the people that he would carry out their wishes and desires; Jackson won 56% of the popular vote.
“There are no necessary evils in government. Its evils exist only in its abuses.” - Andrew Jackson
The Indian Removal Act was acted on in 1830 when Andrew Jackson took away the Federal Government’s right to protect the Native American’s land. Jackson considered this an important step in his early career. The states had been pressuring the government to get rid of the Native Americans since the war of 1812. At the time there were around 125,000 Native Americans living in the United States, mostly in the south where there were 5 different Native American tribes. The government signed many treaties with the Native Americans so they would abandon their land and go west towards Oklahoma. Jackson also had to hire the US Army to get all the Natives out who refused to leave. Many of the Natives died on the way to Oklahoma and the ones that refused to leave were attacked by the US Army.
“You must pay the price if you wish to secure the blessing.” - Andrew Jackson
The Panic of 1837 was when the increasing debt from the good economy made the English banks have to tighten their credit policies in 1836 which led to a bank crisis in 1837. The economy had been vulnerable to a downfall because of imports and exports from other countries in the past decade. The British had been shipping so many products to the U.S. that they had to raise their interest rates and reduced the trade lines that shipped there. Therefore the British demand for American cotton dropped as well as the price for it. The Bank went into crisis and dragged down the entire economy with every bankruptcy. The already bad economy became a full depression.
“I for one do not despair of the republic.” -Andrew Jackson
"As long as our Government is administered for the good of the people, and is regulated by their will; as long as it secures to us the rights of person and of property, liberty of conscience and of the press, it will be worth defending…" -Andrew Jackson
"Human slavery was the powerhouse of the early American economy. Slave-grown products were the most valuable exports that the United States produced."
- Andrew Jackson
“It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their own selfish purposes.” - Andrew Jackson
“The people are the government, administering it by their agents; they are the government, the sovereign power.” - Andrew Jackson
"Nullification means insurrection and war; and the other states have a right to put it down."
- Andrew Jackson
The Nullification Crisis in 1832, during Andrew Jackson’s presidency, became a heated and dangerous sectional conflict. South Carolina passed a law that the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were to be “null and void” within the boundaries of South Carolina. This provoked a real constitutional crisis because all of a sudden a state was rejecting a federal law. Andrew Jackson realized the seriousness of the situation and made sure that everyone knew that “nullification means insurrection and war; and the other states have a right to put it down.” He means that if South Carolina can nullify and get away with it, other states will think they can too and that would mean war. Andrew Jackson and the federal government would challenge the uprising states and it could have come to war. Fortunately for the United States, South Carolina backed down and gave up its nullification of the tariffs.
“I have always been afraid of banks.” - Andrew Jackson
The Bank War was known as the struggle over the rechartering of the Second Bank of America. This took place during the administration of Andrew Jackson and was a difficult situation for him to deal with given his strong opinion on the matter. The rechartering of the bank was on the terms that the bank offered economic privileges. When this bill came to the president Andrew Jackson immediately vetoed it. His argument was based off of “Jacksonian” democracy, which pitted the “farmers, mechanics and laborers” or the hardworking people, who argued against the “rich and powerful” against the Bank and it’s constitutionality. Andrew Jackson had never been on the side of the Bank and frankly he had always been afraid the power that the Bank could hold. This was reason number one why Jackson and the rest of his federal government vetoed the bill and denied a recharting of the Second Bank of America.
“I am one of those who do not believe that a national debt is a national blessing, but rather a curse to a republic; inasmuch as it is calculated to raise around the administration a moneyed aristocracy dangerous to the liberties of the country.” - Andrew Jackson
The United States is and always has been under federal debt. In 1835 for the first and only time in American history, Andrew Jackson payed off all of the United States’ debt. He struggled doing this but it was all for not as it was an extremely short lived victory as a huge depression sunk into the United States and soon they were in debt once again. Andrew Jackson hated the thought of national debt and that is one of the reasons clearing the debt was one of his priorities. He disagreed with other politicians saying that national debt is a curse, not a national blessing and that he would do whatever he could to clear the debt. After the depression the debt was raised to 3.1 million dollars and has never been cleared since.