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Chemistry of the Brain

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Austin Whalen

on 11 April 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry of the Brain

Chemistry of the Brain By Austin Whalen The Brain communicates with itself by sending out chemical information. The Brain takes information and sends it from one neuron to another. Neuron- nerve cell This process can be referred to as Neurochemistry. The Brain cannot do this without chemicals, which is how chemistry plays a big part. These chemicals allow the brain to perform functions that we do everyday. Examples- movement, thinking, speaking, and listening. Emotions are produced through chemical changes in the brain. Being happy or sad is an example of a chemical process in our body. The information is passed from neuron to neuron with neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters- a brain chemical that allows brain cells to communicate with each other. They do this by carrying a chemical message to each neuron. Synapses- the point at which a nervous impulse is passed from one neuron to another. Neurotransmitter-->Synapses--->Neuron The receptor on the neuron will accept or deny chemical information. It does this by using different neurotransmitters, deciding whether to stay or move on. One neuron can receive multiple messages at one time from other neurons. These messages are made to change the action of the neuron. They also work together to make the neuron perform in a certain way. Since this happens very fast, the neurotransmitter must be cleared away. The neurotransmitters are cleared through three different ways. Reuptake- The chemical is pumped back into the nerve ending it came from. Destroyed by enzymes near the receptor sites. Spread out into the surrounding parts of the brain and destroyed there. Enzymes- substances that speed up specific chemical reactions in organisms Serotonin is a hormone located in:
the pineal gland
the digestive tract
the central nervous system
blood platelets Hormone- a substance our body produces that regulates and controls the activity of certain cells or organs. Serotonin is also a neurotransmitter 80% of our serotonin is found in the stomache. The rest is in the central nervous system. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter. Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain. It is released by the hypothalamus. Dopamine can be regulated by certain medications. It acts on the sympathetic nervous system Dopamine can increase blood pressure and heart rate. Anti-psychoticts are used to manipulate dopamine concentration. Causes- drugs, genetics, the environment. Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Serotonin deficiencies- fatigue, mild to severe anxiety and depression. Disturbances in sleep patterns. Odd changes in eating, like loss of appetite. Difficulty thinking and concentrating. Low Serotonin- a result from high levels of stress, drugs, and pollutants. Too Much vs. Too Little Dopamine High levels of dopamine are found in the brain of a person with ADHD. It is also found with people who have Parkinson's and schizophrenia. High levels- nausea, vomiting, headache, fast heart beat. Irritation of the skin. Diabetes may be a result- not yet correlated. Long term effects- difficulty breathing, and chest tightness. Blue skin discoloration, swelling of the face, tongue or throat, and decreased or increased heartbeat. Causes paranoia and the withdrawl from social situations. Caused by drugs and genetics. Suspicious behavior. Lower amounts of dopamine is just as bad as higher. Lower amounts of dopamine can reduce motivation and the inabiltity to experience pleasure. May also cause Parkinson's. With too little dopamine, movement becomes difficult. Parkinson's- a disease where a person experience uncontrollable muscle spasms Results in the social anxiety in schizophrenics. Depression. Weight gain Causes- drinking and alcohol. Tobacco and Drugs Antidepressants Antidepressants are used to increase the chemical messengers in our brain. Serotonin- designed to block the reuptake. Antidepressants do not effect dopamine. Stop anxiety and depression. Not confirmed to be a direct result of loss of anxiety. The central nervous system- the brain One of the most important neurotransmitters. Serotonin plays a part in regulation of learning, mood and, sleep. It is also important in vomiting, anxiety, migraine, and appetite. It also regulates intestinal movements. Serotonin levels change with the seasons. Women have more common serotonin receptors than men. Serotonin could be a growth factor Lack the protein that sends the secreted serotonin back to the cell it came from. Could help heal wounds May also cause headache and shivering. Symptoms can start within a few minutes and end within a couple of weeks. Often results in going to the hospital. May also be because of types of food that you eat. May result in seizures and unconsciousness. Severe symptoms include high fever and irregular heartbeat. Antidepressants can affect the amount of serotonin. Twitching, trembling, and dilated pupils. http://www.humanillnesses.com/Behavioral-Health-A-Br/Brain-Chemistry-Neurochemistry.html#b http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/232248.php http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Dopamine.aspx Allows us to perform voluntary and involuntary actions Neurochemistry- the study of the chemical compositions in the nervous system In the picture slide point out the reuptake and the neurotransmitters. In the video point out that all of this happens in split seconds at the end. The chemical composition of serotonin: C10H12N2O Serotonin is mostly in the gut, that is why when you get nervous, it is said to make it feel like you have butterflies in your stomache. Serotonin is lower in the winter because the chemical that lowers serotonin is more active in the winter because it more dark. Therefore, it makes people more miserable. The chemical composition of dopamine: C8H11N02 Scientists have yet to conclude that serotonin can cause diabetes. Antidepressants only work on serotonin Chemical compounds as a drug can influence the amount of dopamine in the central nervous system. Dopamine is regulated in the brain. Dopamine cannot be used as a drug.
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