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Migration and Development for Turkey
Transcript of Migration and Development for Turkey
Dr. Melissa Siegel
UNU-MERIT and the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance
Migration at a glance
What do we mean by Development?
The Migration and Development Debate: the "Swinging Pendulum" (Hein de Haas)
Migration and Development: the evidence
Migration and Development in the Post 2015 Development Agenda
Key drivers of develpoment
Crowding out of local production
Migration Theory: The Pessemists: 1973-2000
Surging Remittances, 'new development mantra'
Migration Theory: The optimists
Driver of Industrialization; wage equalisation, Guestworker programmes
Breaking the Cycle: Recognizing Nuance
More than 215 million international migrants
(World Bank, 2013)
What do we mean by development?
Outline of the Day
Migration and Development
"An underlying assumption (is) that development is about enabling people to stay at home" (Bakewell, 2008, p1342)
Human Capabilities (Sen, 1999) : the ability people to control their own lives: 'development is freedom'
"Migration is a crucial mechanism of development for the economy as a whole, exploiting the potential of growth inherent in economic disparities, and both sectors, traditional and modern, sending and receiving, greatly benefit from it (Arango, 2000, p284)
"...because migration is not an exogenous variable but an integral part of wider social and development processes, the development impacts of migration are also fundamentally heterogeneous" (de Haas, 2010, p2)
"The objective of IOM’s migration and development programme is to contribute to a better understanding of the links between international migration and development in order to harness the development potential of migration for the benefit of both societies and migrants and to contribute to sustainable development and poverty reduction" (IOM, 2013).
"The contribution of labour migration to employment, economic growth, development and the alleviation of poverty should be recognized and maximized for the benefit of both origin and destination countries" (ILO, 2006).
Development: the MDGs
In recent decades return migration and development has become a regular phrase amongst policy makers.
Different types of return: permanent, temporary, virtual, transnational lives
However, there are many questions regarding the relationship between return and development such as:
which returnee’s best contributing to development? When does return lead to development?
How can policies enhance the development effects of return migrants?
Engaging the diaspora
giving rights and services
extracting obligations- remittances, investment, building institutions, capacity building
Diasporas as actors in (post-)conflict contexts.
Migration and Development in
Migration and Development Policy: Maximizing the Benefits
Feel free to contact me:
"the heterogeneity of real-life migration-development interactions is too high to fit them into deterministic theoretical schemes predicting the development outcome of migration" (de Haas, 2010, p13).
"The first conceptual difficulty...relates to the use of the word 'and'. This...gives the impression that...migration is somehow separate and distinct from development" (Skeldon, 2008, p3)
Migrant remittances can positively impact economic development through poverty alleviation, investments in human capital and business and acting a source of foreign currency against which loans can be taken.
Brain Circulation replaces brain drain and benefits both sending and receiving countries.
Diasporas can be a powerful force for development through knowledge and value transfer and their lobbying power
For sending countries, migration can relieve pressure due to high unemployment and help in the creation of economic linkages.
In host countries, migration can meet labor market needs, stimulate entrepreneurship, build economic linkages, bring diversity etc.
Remittances go to the families who can migrate, rarely the poorest, and may be regionally concentrated thus can cause uneven development
Remittances may create disincentives to work
Remittances may cause the devaluation of currency (Dutch disease).
Having a family member absent may have other negative consequences on those left behind
Brain waste, either in the host countries due to skills recognition, or in the origin country if cannot be employed in chosen sector in the absence of migration
The diaspora can worsen conflict
Migration in the Post 2015 Development Agenda
“Migration is the oldest action against poverty. It selects those who most want help. It is good for the country to which they go; it helps break the equilibrium of poverty in the country from which they come. What is the perversity in the human soul that causes people to resist so obvious a good?” (John Kenneth Galbraith)
Remittances: $401 billion to developing countries in 2012, Between 2013-2015 an estimated 8.8% growth is anticipated reaching $515 billion in 2015 (World Bank, 2013)
Taking into consideration Sen's definition of development as freedom, the MDGs represent a practical definition of development.
How does migration enable their achievement?
"The question is not whether migration can be economic development, but rather at what point do we consider migration an important form of economic development" (Clemens & Pritchett, 2008, p423)
"Two of every five living Mexicans who have escaped poverty did so by leaving Mexico; for Haitians it is four out of five." (Clemens & Pritchett, 2008, p423)
"in the order of tens of thousands of infant deaths are prevented each year for the sole reason that those infants’ parents left poor countries". (Clemens & Pritchett, 2008, p423)
Over 700 million internal migrants (conservative estimate) (World Bank, 2013)
15.4 million refugees, 937,000 asylum seekers, and 28.8 million people IDPS (UNHCR, 2013)
"Development in all societies must have at least the following three objectives: 1) to
increase the availability and widen the distribution of basic life-sustaining good such as food, shelter health and protection
to all members of society 2); to
raise levels of living, including, in addition to higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education and more attention to cultural and humanistic values
... and 3)
to expand the range of economic and social choice to individuals and nations
by freeing them from servitude and dependence, not only in relation to other people and nation-states but also to the forces of ignorance and human misery"(Todaro, 1992, p102)
What KIND of Development? (Macro, Micro Meso)
What TYPE of Development? (Economic, Social, Political etc)
In what context?
Migrants are coming from an increasingly diverse group of countries to a "shrinking pool of prime destination countries" (de Haas, 2013)
"Migration is Development" (Sutherland, 2013)
The International Migration and Development Program aims to expand knowledge on the effects of migration on source and destination countries and identify the migration policies, regulations and institutional reforms that will lead to superior development outcomes (The World Bank, 2013)
"Migration and mobility are key drivers of sustainable development, but global cooperation must shift into a higher gear. The UN High-level Dialogue in October will provide a unique opportunity to bring forward the global agenda on migration and development, and promote concrete measures which make a meaningful contribution to the lives of migrants" (Cecilia Malmström, European Commissioner for Home Affairs)
"Migration should be recognised as a driver of inclusive economic, social and environmental development and, as such, included as a priority in the post-2015 development agenda" (European Commissioner for Development, Andris Piebalgs)
"Given the scale and impact of internal migration on national labour markets, poverty reduction, family cohesion, and development in general, there is merit in integrating it explicitly in the future UN
development agenda" (High-level Expert Policy Dialogue on Migration
in the Post 2015 Development Agenda, Stockholm, 26th February 2013)
Over 320 million international migrants (World Bank, 2013)
The focus on migration and development policy has largely focused on
return, remittances and diaspora engagement.
There has been a focus on facilitating short term and circular migration to maximize remittances and brain circulation, and diaspora engagement.
Facilitating short term mobility has thus been a key way in which migration has been mainstreamed into development policy through the creation of so called 'Win Win Win' scenarios.
Migration and Development in
Achieve Universal Primary Education
Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
Reduce Child Mortality and
Improve Maternal Health
Combat HIV/AIDs, Malaria and other Diseases
Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Global Partnership for Development
Development and GDP growth often equated with one another but such growth can hide inequality.
In Migration and Development debates we often talk of 'human development' and poverty alleviation
Sen's capability approach
The impacts of migration on poverty are complex, context specific and dynamic.
Migration can help people out of poverty through different channels: primarily through remittances, the highly-skilled, the diaspora, and through the very act of moving itself.
Yet migration can also reinforce existing inequalities, encourage dependency, crowd out local production.
The prospect of migration can be an incentive to achieve either more or less education e.g Mexico and the Philippines.
The effects of migration on the educational attainment of children left behind can be either positive or negative.
The extent to which migration influences educational goals relates very much to contextual factors.
Monetary remittances can increase access to health services.
social remittances can improve health through the transfer of norms and values relating to hygiene, preventative healthcare and so forth.
Theoretically, the very act of moving - both internally and internationally - can also be beneficial if it enables women more access to better quality health services.
Conversely, however, it can have negative impacts for children left behind.
The relationship between migration and environmental sustainability is ambiguous
It is generally assumed that environmental change will increase migration, particularly from those areas most at risk of climate-related shocks such as drought, desertification or flooding, although the empirical evidence does not currently support this.
From a largely economic perspective, the logic of global governance is to address market imperfections, to minimise impacts of negative externalities and to achieve economies of scale.
It is evident that the policy decisions of one country in the area of migration have implications for another.
The process of migration can itself be transformative and migration can lead to the challenging of gender norms.
In general in how far female migrants can benefit from migration seems influenced by the social, economic and cultural context in both the country of origin and the country of destination.
With increased globalization and mobility, individuals are increasingly connected through multiple links (Wilson, 2003).
This increases the challenges associated with the management and control of public health, particular regarding infectious diseases (Gushulak & MacPherson, 2004).
“While migration is not a direct risk factor for HIV infection, there are economic, socio-cultural, and political factors in the migration process that make migrant workers particularly vulnerable” (UNDP, 2008, p. 5).
Some of the factors that increase the vulnerabilities of women migrants to HIV include:
Poor access to information and lack of preparation of migrants
Excessive recruitment fees and poor wages may lead migrant into debt traps and consequently into sexual exploitation
Abusive and exploitative working conditions lead women into cycles of poverty and vulnerability
2002: the Doyle Report considered whether there should be a UN Agency for migration.
While the idea was scrapped, migration and development was on the policy landscape as evidenced by:
The creation of the GCIM (2003-2005),
the appointment of a Special Representative on Migration and Development (2006),
the convening of the High Level Dialogue on Migration and Development (2006) and the second HLD in 2013
the creation of the more informal Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) (2007)
General focus on remittances hailed as the 'new development mantra (Kapur, 2004).
Extension of policy discussions to brain circulation and diaspora engagement
in kind remittnaces
social remittances/knowledge transfer
The Migration Pendulum