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COM60203 Basic Camera Terms

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by

Wai Leong

on 12 April 2015

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Transcript of COM60203 Basic Camera Terms

My Campus – a collage base on each of the
requirement below:
Framing
Proportion
Shape
Perspective
Contrast
Dateline: 21 – 25 April, 2014

Exercise 2

When you point the camera at a subject and press the shutter button halfway, the viewfinder display indicates which combination of shutter speed and aperture will provide a suitable exposure.

The recommended combination will appear on the camera display either as a moving needle or as a flashing light-emitting diode (LED).







Light Metering

Most modern cameras have some form of built-in light metering system that measures the brightness of the scene by means of light-sensitive cells.

Based on the film (or sensor) speed you have set, the light meter will make or recommend an appropriate exposure setting.







Light Metering

Keep the right arms close to the right side of your body and brace the left arm in front of the body to provide a solid support.

The left elbow can also rest firmly just above the stomach for added stability.






Adopt the correct Posture

Must ensure that you are in a comfortable position, and have a natural, sturdy grip for stabilization.







Adopt the correct Posture

The shutter speed you choose, combined with the aperture, is one of the biggest factors in how you creatively express your photographic vision for the scene.







Shutter Speed Choice

Compact digital cameras use electronic shutters, which control the amount of light entering the sensor by simply cutting the recording times electronically, while digital SLRs use a combination of both.







Shutter Speed

Measured in fractions of seconds – the higher the number, the faster the shutter speed. i.e 1/1000 is much faster than 1/30 – which means that less light will enter the camera.

SLR cameras have mechanical shutters that allow speeds from several seconds to 1/30s, 1/60s, 1/125s, 1/250s, 1/500s, up to as high as 1/8000s.






Shutter Speed

Is a term used to discussed exposure time.

Its basically the amount of time that the shutter is open or in digital terms it is the length of time your image sensor sees the scene you are attempting to capture.






Shutter Speed

Modern SLRs and prosumer cameras provide different kinds of metering systems: centre-weighted, spot and matrix metering (also sometimes called evaluative or intelligent metering).







Light Metering

Meters indicate correct exposure as one that will record the subject in a mid-tone between light and dark.

The intension is to provide maximum detail in both the highlight and the shadow. This kind of exposure is suitable for most subjects.







Light Metering

Anything lower than 50mm is considered a wide-angle lens and anything higher is considered a telephone lens.

Some lens have more than 1 focal length. These are called variable focal or zoom lens.







Focal Length

How big each object in the scene will appear on the film or the sensor is determined by the focal length of the lens.

In a 35mm film format camera, a 50mm lens is consider a normal lens because its angle of view approximates the diagonal size of the film.







Focal Length

The focal length of the lens is indicated either at the mouth or on the barrel of the lens in milimetre increments such as 28mm, 50mm and 105mm, etc.








Focal Length

Exposure is the total amount of light that reaches the film or the sensor, if insufficient amounts of light reach the film, the image will be underexposed; if too much light gets in, it will be overexpossed.








Exposure

DoF becomes greater as the size of the aperture decrease, i.e. a setting of f/22 will produce a greater depth of field than f/4.







Depth of Field (DoF)

Any point closer or farther away than the distance focused upon will be less sharp, but will look acceptably sharp to the eye.

The greater the range of sharpness, the greater the depth of field.






Depth of Field (DoF)

Is the range of distance where objects in front of and behind the focal point are reasonably sharp.








Depth of Field (DoF)

A large f-number such as f/32 -
all foreground and background objects in focus.

A small f-number such as f/1.4 - isolate the foreground (sharp) from the background (blur).







Aperture

Aperture
Depth of Field (DoF)
Exposure
Focal Length
Light metering
Shutter Speed







Basic Camera Terms

Vanishing Point

By tilting the camera and by using a wide angle lens, it is possible to make parallel lines seem to converge more steeply than usual.


Perspective

Linear perspective

Perspective is a way of using
spatial elements to indicate
depth and distance in a
photograph, giving the
impression that you are looking
at a three-dimensional scene.


Perspective

Hold the camera steady by gripping with the bottom 3 fingers on your right hand, leaving the index finger loose to press the shutter or adjust any knobs.







Adopt the correct Posture

In addition to aperture, a lens has focal length, the focal length of the lens is the distance from the optical centre of the lens to the film (or sensor) plane when the focus is set to infinity.







Focal Length

Exposure

Controlling the light is a simple matter of increasing or decreasing either the shutter speed or the size of the aperture.

Thus, exposure is a combination of aperture and shutter speed.







The brightness of the scene is measured with the use of a built in (or external) light meter.











Exposure

This is done by first measuring the brightness of the scene and then adjusting your aperture and shutter speed until the quantity of light reaching the film or the sensor exactly matches the film or the sensor’s sensitivity.








Exposure

It is important to remember that the distance of
the subject that is focused on and the focal length of the lens also affect the depth of field.







Depth of Field (DoF)

The primary method of
controlling the depth of
field is by varying the size
of the aperture.








Depth of Field (DoF)

DoF is an important creative control that you can use to help focus the attention of the viewer on a specific element within the scene.








Depth of Field (DoF)

Can appear on LCD screen on DSLR and are controlled by a dial.

Also contributes and determines the Depth of Field (DoF) of your image, although primarily its function remains in controlling the exposure.








Aperture

Together with shutter speed, aperture determines the exposure – the total amount of light that reaches the film.








Aperture

Aperture refers to the opening of the lens through which light enters the camera.

Control the amount of light passing into the lens.
Measured by f/ number.

Aperture


Lecturer & Tutorial :
Ms. Leong Wai Kit
WaiKit.Leong@taylors.edu.my
Ext-5393
C5.44



COM60203:
Photography
Semester 4, Year 2

Soft/Hard

Colourful/neutral

Contrast

Bright/Dark

Strong color tend to “push out” from a picture, and introduce energy to an image.


Contrast

Concentric Arcs

Sweeping Diagonal

Shape

Enclosing lines

Hard lines

Framing

A frame within a frame.

Framing

Framing
Proportion
Shape
Perspective
Contrast

Composition

When doing hand-held, always utilize your surroundings. Lean against something solid to assist and support you, sitting, squatting, lying flat.







Adopt the correct Posture

Rest the base of the camera in the palm of your left hand, leaving the left thumb and index finger free to turn the focusing and aperture ring (for manual focus cameras).

The left hand should then push the camera body upwards until the top of the camera rests comfortably and steadily at eye level.






Adopt the correct Posture

Responsible for creating dramatic effects by either freezing action or blurring motion.


Shutter Speed

Shutter Speed

Shutter speed affects how long light is allowed into the camera.

Shutter speed is often displayed as just the bottom number of a fraction — for example, 1/25 second appears as 25.

Most SLRs have through-the-lens (TTL) metering. Cells inside the camera read the light after it has passed through the lens.








Light Metering

Camera Exposure Modes
P (Program AE)
Tv (Time Value)
Av (Aperture value)
M (manual)

To get a correctly exposed photo, it is necessary to control the light that enters the camera.




Exposure

Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Balance

Strong shapes not only organize your material but also offer a contrast to the frame, creating another level of dynamic.


Shape

Leafy Frame

Double Frame

Use the shape created by the transient position of people or objects.


Framing

Waterfall - 5 Second Exposure

KL - Slow shutter speed (ten seconds)

Slow shutter speed - “motion blur”

Shutter Speed

Dolphin - 1/1600 Shutter Speed

Caspian Tern - 1/2000th of a second

Fast shutter speed - freeze action. 

Shutter Speed

Land dominant

Equal Weighting

Use the full extend of the zoom lens’ power to vary the scale of the subject.


Proportion

Aperture and ISO

Aperture and Shutter speed

To get a correctly exposed photo, it is necessary to control the light that enters the camera.





Exposure
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