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EL INGLÉS JURÍDICO y su traducción

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Vanesa Lede Arca

on 4 December 2014

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Transcript of EL INGLÉS JURÍDICO y su traducción

EL INGLÉS JURÍDICO Y SU TRADUCCIÓN AL ESPAÑOL

5. Polisemias del léxico jurídico
- Sinonimia: "annul": "abolish", "override" y "set aside"

- Polisemia:
"s
anction
" (castigar/ dar aprobación)

"
issue
" (descendencia/ cuestión importante):
"at
issue
"

"
provision
" (suministro/ disposición de una ley)

"
order
" (mandato político o administrativo,resolución judicial

"
defence
" (defensa/ eximente):
"Ignorance of the law is no
defence
"

"
articles
" "in articles"(periodo de prácticas o formación de un abogado
conjunto de artículos de una ley)


"
consideration
" (consideración:
take into
consideration
, prestación contractual)
4. Tipos de términos jurídicos
- Términos exclusivamente jurídicos
- Palabras del lenguaje cotidiano con acepciones jurídicas
- Palabras del lenguaje jurídico que han pasado al lenguaje cotidiano
1. El inglés jurídico y el lenguaje cotidiano
- Complejo y difícil
- Constantes intentos de actualización.
-"Plain English Campaign"
- Detractores defienden:
a. Garantias jurídicas
b. Dinamismo
c. Paralelismo
2. RASGOS GENERALES
- Latinismos
- Vocablos de origen Francés o normando
- Registro formal y arcaizante
- Redundancia expresiva
- Verbos empíricos
- Eufemismos
- Lenguaje mutilado
- Adjetivos jurídicos
3. Morfosintaxis
- Sufijos -er y -ee
- Adverbios, preposiciones y conjunciones
- Construcciones gerundivas
- Conjunción "that"
- casez de conectores
- Oraciones complejas
- Repetición de palabras y contrucciones
- Puntuación insuficiente
- Pasivas
A. Garantías Jurídicas
Los significados jurídicos, delimitados y precisos emanan de tres fuentes:
-Parlamento
- Los jueces
-Las revistas profesionales.
B. Dinamismo
-Propio del lenguaje jurídico
-Responde a las necesidades de la vida
C. Lenguaje Paralelo
- Medios de comunicación lo hacen accesible alpúblico en general.
EJ.: "commit for trial"
"send for trial"
Los Latinismos
- El derecho inglés es autóctono.
- Influencia del latín y del Derecho romano, debido a dos razones:
- Poder de la iglesia
- Latín como lengua de comunicación internacional.
- Los términos latinos pueden ser de dos clases:
a. Palabras típicamente latinas: "
bonna fide
" (de buena fe).
b. Adaptadas al inglés:
"
abscond
": the offence of
absconding"
"
impugn
": an atempt was made to
impugn
the validity..."
Vocablos de origen Francés o Normando
- Palabras terminadas en "-age":
"

damages"
-Otras:
"
Puisné judges"
"On parole"
Registro formal y arcaizante
- Carácter consuetudinario
- Latinismos y términos normandos y del francés antiguo:
"brother judge"
"learned colleagues"
"milord"
- Presentes en la morfosintaxis:
- Desinencias morfológicas:
"
showeth"
-Conjunciones y los adverbios formales:

"thereupon, aforesaid"
Redundancia expresiva
- "each and every"
-" last will and testament"
- "Seventh: If any
devesee
,
legatee
or

beneficiary
under this Will..."
Los verbos empíricos
- "We
find
the case proved"
- "We
find
you guilty"
- "I
submit
you're going..."
Eufemismos
- "Custodial interrogation"
-" Visitor to a Court of Inns"
Lenguaje
Mutilado
- Abreviaturas: "writ of a fi fa"
Adjetivos Jurídicos
-" Absolute: express and final".
"
absolute
divorce"

- Qualified (doble sentido):
-profesional: "well-trained"
"
qualified
judge"
- condicional:
"
qualifying
date"

- Constructive:
"
constructive
dismissal"
- Actual: "
actual
crime"
Sufijos -er y -ee
- "lessor- lessee"
- "paroler-parolee"
- "mortgator-mortgagee"
Adverbios, preposiciones y conjunciones
- "hereinafter"

- "whereof":
"IN WITNESS
WHEREOF
"

- "hereby"

Gerundivas
- "
Being
duly sworn"
-"This cause
coming
on to be heard before me upon application of the Petitioner..."
Conjunción "That"
- "The Court of Appeal so held when dismissing an appeal by the defendant, Charly Records Ltd, from a decision by Judge Hayman on a preliminary issue
that
a clause in a contract between..."

Escasez de conectores
- Oraciones yuxtapuestas
- Escasa presencia de conectores

"In 1985 Charly transferred its production order from Ariston to another company.
Just
under 14,000 pounds was outstanding on invoices for records supplied by Ariston."
Oraciones largas
- "...
when and so long as
such parties were in the throes of negotiating larger terms..."
Repetición de palabras y construcciones sintácticas
Pasivas poco frecuentes
Términos exclusivamente jurídicos
-
"
remand
"
:
"Both were
remanded
in custody."

- "
committal
" (4 usos):

"committal
for sentence"
"committal
for trial order"
"
committtal
order"
"
committal
proceedings"


Palabras del lenguaje cotidiano con acepciones jurídicas
- "
bring
": "
Bring
an action"

- "
Discharge
": " unload"
"perform" "discharge honourably its obligations"

-"
find
": "...Judge Hayman
found
that a clause 7 was penalty ..."

-"
i
nformation
": "...the
laying of an
information
before a magistrate..."

- "
provide
": dos sgdos:
ofrecer : "...damage provisions that
provide...
"
disponer:"...EFTA section 910
provides..
."

- "
result
": " the indisposed interest
results
to the settlor"


Palabras del lenguaje jurídico que han pasado al lenguaje cotidiano
"convicted"
"auction"
"proceedings
"lawsuit"
6. Traducción y contrastes léxicos
- Reproducir el mensaje con la equivalencia semántica, estilística y discursiva.

-
Errores
de traducción:
a)"
case
": " the basis of the
case"

b)"
action
": "police
action

"industrial action"
"administrative
action
"
"
action
for breach of contract"

c) "
under
":
"
Under
the terms of the lease the rent is
to be increased..."
d) "
Assist
":
7. Préstamos y calcos
- Enriquecimiento conceptual y expresivo
- Préstamos necesarios "trust"
-
Errores
comunes:

"constructive":

"
constructive
total loss"
"Clause 7 was therefore
construed
in the
light of the principle..."


"implement":

"emphasize":

8. Falsos Amigos
- Denominados términos cognados:

"
magistrate
": "
Magistrates
' Courts"

"
eviction
": "
eviction
notice"

"
legislature
": "Life of a Parliament"

"
section
"

"
article
"

9. La sintaxis en la traducción de textos y documentos jurídicos
- Contrastes sintácticos:

"I
have been
his sole agent since 1932"

- Oraciones largas del español:

"In 1985 Charly transferred its production order from
Ariston to another company.
Just
under 14,000 pounds was outstanding on
invoices..."

- Perífrasis del español:
"
a genuine pre-estimate of damage"
"insider trading"
"liability in damages"

-Elipsis del español:

"The SEC has reinforced the
insider trading
restrictions with promulgation
of Rule 14e-3 of the SEC, an independent provision prohibiting
insider
trading
.... Penalty under the
Insider Trading
Sanctions Act of 1984...on any
recognized theory of
insider trading
restriction."

- Generalizaciones :
"
A
prospective tenant who pays quarterly rent for possession of
premises ..."
- El orden privativo de cada lengua:

"a prospective tenant who pays quarterly rent for possession of premises pending negotiation
of the lease is no presumed to have acquired a quarterly tenancy"
10. Tentación paronímica y técnicas de traducción oblicua
- Ser fiel al texto
- Evitar el uso innecesario de calcos y préstamos
- Evitar las construcciones sintácticas paralelas
de la lengua de partida.
-
Transposición
: el uso de una categoría
gramatical por otra:

"
he held that,
for late delivery... "

-
Modulación
:
"under 14,000 pounds was outstanding
on invoices for records...."
"white
collar
offences"


-"Sums AGREED between parties to a contract, to be payable in the event of specified
breaches,
cannot be a genuine pre-estimate of
damage
if they are to apply equally to serious and minor
breaches.
They are therefore not liquidated
damages
but a penalty which is unenforceable for the purpose of the whole contract, including in respect of those
breaches..."
" ... 600 pounds per day will
be paid
by Ariston..."

"...about half the items
were collected
on March 18..."

" ...outstanding on invoices for records
supplied by
Ariston."
Full transcript