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Copy of TOEFL Course II- Reading Comprehension

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Irene Dumitriu

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Transcript of Copy of TOEFL Course II- Reading Comprehension

TOEFL Reading Comprehension Section 3-5 passages
700 words
12-14 questions Structure Introduction 1 paragraph
Introduces the main idea and involves the reader in that idea Body First sentence of each is the topic sentence Several paragraphs The topic sentence tells what the paragraph will be about The rest is filled with details These details explain the importance of the paragraph's topic to the main idea To read effectively, you should know the of most reading passages The more familiar you are with the structure the more you will know what to expect the more you will be able to understand the meaning Conclusion 1 paragraph
Summarizes what has been said in the reading Gives a final comment, prediction, or recommendation Showing why the reading is important to the reader's everyday life Reading Passage 1 Instructions 1. Mark the introduction and underline the sentence that states the main idea
2. Mark each body paragraph and underline the topic sentence in each.
3. In the second body pragraph, underline the sentences that give teh reasons for the cretaion of the Electoral College.
4. Mark the conclusion and underline the recommendation the author makes Refer to the Reading Comp. Handout's passage on the Electoral College Time: 10 minutes. Set your timer. Among the democracies of the world, the United States is distinguished by the manner in which its people select the country’s head of state. Neither a parliamentary system like that of the United Kingdom or Japan, nor a system of direct popular vote as in France or South Korea,the Electoral College used in the Unites States is complex, anachronistic, and a handicap in the democratic process. Some people argue that the elimination of the College is necessary to bring the United States into the world of modern democracy, with an energetic involved electorate and presidents who are in touch with the needs and wants of the citizens who vote for them.

The great complexity of the current system has the unfortunate consequence of blinding most citizens to its workings. In effect, the Electoral College makes the presidential election into a two-stage process. Each of the 50 states is allotted a number of electoral votes, which are used only to elect the president. These votes correspond to the number of that state’s Congressional members: two for each state’s two senators, and a variable number for each state’s representatives, for a total of 538. As a result, states with small populations like Alaska and Vermont, may have only three or four electors, while large states like California, Texas, or New York may have dozens. On Election Day, each state holds its own presidential vote, making the race into 50 little mini-elections. First, within each state, one presidential candidate wins the popular vote, which is the vote by the citizens. The winner chosen by the people is usually awarded all of that state’s electors. The ultimate victor is the candidate who wins the largest number of electoral votes nationwide. Therefore, it’s important for a candidate to win the popular vote in states with the most electoral votes.
Why was such a complex and problematic system ever imposed in the first place? The answer lies in the origins of the American federal system. When the country was established, there was relatively little sense of national identity. People identified themselves as citizens of these states first, as Americans second. Each state functioned a lot like an independent country, and so it made sense to make decisions that affected the entire nation at the state level. Furthermore, even in its earliest days, the United States was a very large country, stretching over 1,600 kilometers of coastline. Communication and transportation systems between disparate parts of the country were extremely poor, and so running campaigns nationally, rather than on a state-by-state basis, would have been quite difficult. So the Electoral College was provided as a solution.
But neither of these factors is any longer the case. Americans have developed a very strong sense of national identity and demand to play a direct role in the selection of their leaders. Mass media and powerful party organizations make national political campaigns easy to conduct. But there are further problems with the Electoral College system. Because presidential candidates know that they only need electoral votes, not popular votes, they avoid campaigning in small states, or states where they know their opponents are likely to win, creating a gulf between themselves and a significant fraction of the electorate. Furthermore, many members of political minorities don’t bother to vote at all, because they know that the candidate they support won’t win in their state anyway. Both situations have the effect of reducing citizen representation and form obstacles to a healthy democracy. The final problem with the electoral system is by the far the largest one. Because of its “winner-take-all” nature, the Electoral College can actually elect a candidate who received fewer popular votes than the opposition, altogether thwarting the purpose of holding an election in the first place. This unfortunate circumstance has in fact come about several times in the nation’s history, most recently in the 2000 election of George W. Bush.

Its original justifications outmoded, its operations inscrutable, and its effects at odds with the goals of democracy, the Electoral College is an institution that some would like to abandon. In its place, the United States should adopt a modern system of electing the president, one that will promote, not discourage, the full participation of all citizens. Such a method will remind our presidential candidates that it is the people’s voices that matter most. The Electoral College Do not move on until you have answered the handout questions Can you identify the introduction? What is the main idea? Questions The first body paragraph tells about what? The next paragraph is still the body, but has a different topic.
What does the second body paragraph focus on? Introduction Or The history of the system What details does the author provide? The next paragraph talks about the current situation Giving details about why the system is currently a problem for democracy The conclusion Reiterates makes a recommendation Types of Reading Questions After reading and understanding the passage, you will be asked several different types of questions about that reading Each question will have four different answers. You have to choose the BEST of the four answers. Reading Questions You have to READ Language Questions You have to Focus on the words Thinking Questions You have to Read and THINK Change the Text Questions You have to Make small, logical changes to the text Drag-n-Drop Questions You have to Choose the best restatement Reading Questions 1.Which of the following does the author mention as a reason for the creation of the Electoral College?
(A)An increasing sense of national identity.
(B)The structure of the legislative body.
(C)The rapid geographical growth of the country, already stretching over 1,600 kilometers.
(D)The difficulty of campaigning throughout the country. 2.In paragraph 3, the author’s description of the United States at the time of the nation’s founding mentions all of the following EXCEPT
(A)The independence of each state.
(B)The developing political parties.
(C)The size of the country.
(D)The poor transportation and communication infrastructure. 2. The author makes all the following statements about modern Americans, EXCEPT
(A) They are loyal to their political parties.
(B) They have a strong sense of national identity
(C) They want to be directly involved in choosing their leaders.
(D) They do not understand how the electoral system functions. 1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as being a problem with Electoral College system?
(A) There is a lack of connection between candidates and citizens.
(B) Many members of political minorities do not vote.
(C) Presidential candidates don’t campaign in small states.
(D) Larger states have more influence over national policy than smaller states. 3. Which of the following details supports the main idea?
(A) Each of the 50 states is allotted a number of electoral votes corresponding to the size of that state’s congressional delegation.
(B) Even in its earliest days, the United States was a very large country, stretching over 1,600 kilometers of coastline.
(C) Because of its “winner-take-all” nature, the Electoral College can actually elect a candidate who received fewer popular votes than the opposition.
(D) Those who would cling to the Electoral College are motivated by self-interest or by a misguided sense of tradition. 4. What does the author state about the Electoral College?
(A) It retains the support of major political parties.
(B) It has been a source of political controversy since its creation.
(C) It has been adopted as a basis for electoral systems in other countries.
(D) It was created to overcome the difficulties of running a national campaign. The word “disparate” in paragraph 3 most closely means











(A) distant.
(B) exotic.
(C) northern.
(D) mountainous. Trains and Automobiles Trains and Automobiles
¶1 Though trains saw widespread use over the course of the 19th century, the last hundred years have seen nothing but a decline in the use of railroads in the United States and a rapid growth in American car culture. While trains have begun recently to attract a little more interest from urban planners, there is no sign at all that the general public shares that interest. [10] What accounts for this progressive loss of interest in train travel? What could have made Americans become so enamored of their cars?
¶2 Efficiency alone cannot be the answer we are looking for. Both automobiles and trains consume similar amounts of energy. The average car gets about 13 passenger kilometers per liter of fuel, no improvement at all over trains, though if trains are forced to run with few passengers, they can actually be much less efficient than cars. Consequently, if one's objective is to conserve energy, neither mode of transportation offers any real advantage, with one exception: interurban light rail and subways are about 25 percent more fuel efficient than cars.
¶3 Both rail and automobile transportation depend on expensive infrastructure; highway construction in the United States averages several million dollars per kilometer, and can easily go much higher. Railroads are almost as expensive to build and railroad operators must also pay to maintain their locomotives and rolling stock. [9] Therefore, there does not seem to be a particular advantage in either fuel efficiency or cost of construction and maintenance associated with either automobiles or trains. Neolithic Agriculture Development In the Neolithic period, starting around 10,000 years ago, perhaps the most important economic revolution in human history occurred the commencement of agriculture and domestication of animals for human consumption. From this point in time, people could start to rely on a more consistent and much increased food supply. As a corollary of this, considerably larger populations could be supported and people could settle in one place without the need to migrate in search of food supplies. Equally important, the surpluses of crops and animals meant that not all the population needed to dedicate their time and energy to farming; some could now learn specialized skills such as crafts or trade. The building of permanent settlements where skills could be developed brought about the conditions necessary for the first growth of towns. But several thousand years elapsed between the beginnings of agriculture and the rise of what we call civilization about 6,000 years ago.
¶2Recent evidence seems to indicate that while the Neolithic revolution first took place in the Middle East in the valleys of the Tigris-Euphrates and of the Nile it occurred independently in other areas of the world. The origins of the revolution are not known in great detail, but it is known that the wild grasses that were the ancestors of wheat and barley grew natively in the Eastern Mediterranean area. It may be that Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) foragers simply supplemented their diet by reaping these wild grasses, and later came to understand the advantage of returning some of the grain to soil as seed. Whatever the case, we know that at an early date people living in the Eastern Mediterranean region, who lived by hunting, fishing, and gathering, began to make sickles, with stone teeth set in bone handles. Such tools were certainly used for reaping some grass crop, whether cultivated or wild.
¶3Around this time, other communities in the Middle East cultivated plants from which they learned how to obtain flour. Evidence shows that they ground down the grain with a simple type of mill, consisting of a large saddle-shaped stone on which a smaller stone was rubbed up and down. The livestock they bred cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats was exploited for their meat, skins, and milk.
¶4 [A] Both in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the periodic floods of great rivers such as the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates not only supplied water to the fields but also brought down fresh soil in the form of fertile muddy sediments. [B] This sediment was deposited on flood plains around such rivers, thus annually restoring the fruitfulness of the land. [C] This regular flooding and sediment deposit allowed these early farmers to continue cultivating the same fields repeatedly for generations without exhausting the fertility of the soil, and crop surpluses were, therefore, available to allow an increase in population and a growth in trade and skills development. [D] The area available for cultivation was expanded when people learned to draw off the river water into man-made irrigation canals and ditches, watering and fertilizing larger and larger areas of land.
¶5The practice of artificial irrigation affected the soil in various ways, but not always for the good. Since the channels were often shallow, there was frequently a great loss of water through evaporation in a hot climate. This could lead to a marked increase in soil salinity, since the salts held in solution or suspension were deposited as the water evaporated, and too much salinity could eventually damage the soil. But overall the effect of the irrigation system was to create an artificial environment and to some extent an artificial climate with a range of conditions that favored both human experiment and agricultural development. Beyond this, settled agriculture led to the development of property rights and hence to a legal framework and mechanisms to enforce laws. This in turn led to a more extensive and hierarchical government organization and hence to the development of large, stable communities. Nineteenth-Century Politics in the United States The development of the modern presidency in the United States began with Andrew Jackson who swept to power in 1829 at the head of the Democratic Party and served until 1837. During his administration he immeasurably enlarged the power of the presidency. “The President is the direct representative of the American people,” he lectured the Senate when it opposed him. “He was elected by the people, and is responsible to the people.”
¶2During Jackson’s second term, his opponents had gradually come together to form the Whig party. [A] Whigs and Democrats held different attitudes toward the changes brought about by the market, banks, and commerce. [B] The Democrats tended to view society as a continuing conflict between “the people” farmers, planters, and workers and a set of greedy aristocrats. [C] This “paper-money aristocracy” of bankers and investors manipulated the banking system for their own profit, Democrats claimed, and sapped the nation’s virtue by encouraging speculation and the desire for sudden, undeserved wealth. [D] The Democrats wanted the rewards of the market without sacrificing the features of a simple agrarian republic. They wanted the wealth that the market offered without the competitive, changing society; the complex dealing; the dominance of urban centers; and the loss of independence that came with it.
¶3Whigs, on the other hand, were more comfortable with the market. For them, commerce and economic development were agents of civilization. Nor did the Whigs envision any conflict in society between farmers and workers on the one hand and businesspeople and bankers on the other. Economic growth would benefit everyone by raising national income and expanding opportunity. The government’s responsibility was to provide a well-regulated economy that guaranteed opportunity for citizens of ability.
¶4Whigs and Democrats differed not only in their attitudes toward the market but also about how active the central government should be in people’s lives. Despite Andrew Jackson’s inclination to be a strong President, Democrats as a rule believed in limited government. The government’s role in the economy was to promote competition by destroying monopolies and special privileges. In keeping with this philosophy of limited government, Democrats also rejected the idea that moral beliefs were the proper sphere of government action. Religion and politics, they believed, should be kept clearly separate, and they generally opposed humanitarian legislation.
¶5The Whigs, in contrast, viewed government power positively. They believed that it should be used to protect individual rights and public liberty, and that it had a special role where individual effort was ineffective. By regulating the economy and competition, the government could ensure equal opportunity. Indeed, for the Whigs the concept of government promoting the general welfare went beyond the economy. In particular, Whigs in the northern sections of the United States also believed that government power should be used to foster the moral welfare of the country. They were more likely to favor social-reform legislation and aid to education.
¶6In some ways the social makeup of the two parties was similar. To be competitive in winning votes, Whigs and Democrats both had to have significant support among farmers, the largest group in society, and workers. Neither party could win an election by appealing exclusively to the rich or the poor. The Whigs, however, enjoyed disproportionate strength among the business and commercial classes. Whigs appealed to planters who needed credit to finance their cotton and rice trade in the world market, to farmers who were eager to sell their surpluses, and to workers who wished to improve themselves. Democrats attracted farmers isolated from the market or uncomfortable with it, workers alienated from the emerging industrial system, and rising entrepreneurs who wanted to break monopolies and open the economy to newcomers like themselves. The Whigs were stronger in towns, cities, and those rural areas that were fully integrated into the market economy, whereas Democrats dominated areas of semisubsistance farming that were more isolated and languishing economically. Sample Reading Passages Download the handouts from the wikispace. When indicated, refer to them Keep a timer with you and respect time limits. Do the exercises. Do not move on with the explanations or tips without doing the exercises. Let's see how this structure works in a real reading passage Let's start with Reading Easy. Right? Well, the TOEFL exam writers are clever, so beware! Let's look a sample reading question The question seems easy because each answer seems to make a little bit of sense, but if we look closely at the answer choices... 1. Read the Question very carefully When reading, we saw that paragraph #3 talkes about the creation of the electoral college. So we go back to Paragraph 3 Why was such a complex and problematic system ever imposed in the first place? The answer lies in the origins of the American federal system. When the country was established, there was relatively little sense of national identity. People identified themselves as citizens of these states first, as Americans second. Each state functioned a lot like an independent country, and so it made sense to make decisions that affected the entire nation at the state level. Furthermore, even in its earliest days, the United States was a very large country, stretching over 1,600 kilometers of coastline. Communication and transportation systems between disparate parts of the country were extremely poor, and so running campaigns nationally, rather than on a state-by-state basis, would have been quite difficult. So the Electoral College was provided as a solution. Which answer choice is mentioned in Paragraph #3? A) An increasing sense of national identity "When the country was established, there was VERY LITTLE sense of national identity" There is nothing about "increasing" sense of identity. This answer takes information that is in the passage and changes it just a little bit to make it wrong. This is fairly common. B) The structure of the legislative body "When the country was established, there was VERY LITTLE sense of national identity" There is nothing about "increasing" sense of identity. This answer takes information that is in the passage and changes it just a little bit to make it wrong. This is fairly common. C) The rapid geographical growth of the country, already stretching over 1,600 kilometers D) The difficulty of campaigning throughout the country "When the country was established, there was VERY LITTLE sense of national identity" There is nothing about "increasing" sense of identity. This answer takes information that is in the passage and changes it just a little bit to make it wrong. This is fairly common. "When the country was established, there was VERY LITTLE sense of national identity" There is nothing about "increasing" sense of identity. This answer takes information that is in the passage and changes it just a little bit to make it wrong. This is fairly common. Or they can ask what is NOT in the text The Correct answer is (B). Political parties are not mentioned at all in paragraph 3. the questions carefully to make sure you know what it is asking
-Go back to the text to find the correct answer.
-Use Process of Elimination to throw away answers when you are sure they are wrong. What have you learned about Practice Questions The correct answer is D The correct answer is A The correct answer is C The correct answer is D These are questions about how language is used in the text They can test your understanding of difficult words Or can be about pronouns, or word replacements, and what they refer to Since this is the Internet-based test, the word will be shown to you with an arrow 1. Read the Question 1. The word “thwarting” in paragraph 4 most closely means

(A) changing
(B) opposing
(C) stopping
(D) supporting 2. Find the word
*Don't look at the answer choices yet
First understand the word IN CONTEXT Communication and transportation systems between disparate parts of the country were extremely poor, and so running campaigns nationally, rather than on a state-by-state basis, would have been quite difficult With the question in mind: Communication and transporation are poor between whats parts of the country? Parts of the country that are far away from each other. Disparate parts of the country are far away from each other Now look at the answer choices The correct answer is A.. It keeps the original meaning from the context The word “themselves” in paragraph 4 relates to
(A) citizens.
(B) states.
(C) presidential candidates.
(D) electors. Let's try another question
Remember to:
Find the word
Understand the word in context
Replace it with each of the answer choices to see what makes sense The correct answer is C 2. The word “which” in paragraph 2 relates to

(A) states
(B) congressional members
(C) the Electoral College
(D) electoral votes 3. The word “outmoded” in paragraph 5 most closely means


(A) complicated
(B) obsolete
(C) useful
(D) difficult to understand Set your timer for 3 minutes for 3 practice questions Because of its “winner-take-all” nature, the Electoral College can actually elect a candidate who received fewer popular votes than the opposition, altogether thwarting the purpose of holding an election in the first place. This unfortunate circumstance has in fact come about several times in the nation’s history, most recently in the 2000 election of George W. Bush. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (D) In effect, the Electoral College makes the presidential election into a two-stage process. Each of the 50 states is allotted a number of electoral votes, which are used only to elect the president. These votes correspond to the number of that state’s Congressional members Its original justifications outmoded, its operations inscrutable, and its effects at odds with the goals of democracy, the Electoral College is an institution that some would like to abandon. The correct answer is (B): Obsolete. Even if you did not know this word, you can elminate the others, which you should know On the TOEFL, you will also encounter Logically about the meaning It might ask Why or How a text is written in the way it is These questions ask you to look closely at the text and understand how different words or phrases work to build the argument Or it might ask you to infer some piece of information You have to understand the text and use logic to choose the answer choice that makes the most sense let's take a look at another sample text and questions to understanding "thinking questions" ¶4 On the other hand, trains hold very real advantages in safety. In the United States alone, more than 40,000 people die every year in car accidents, and hundreds of thousands more suffer personal and financial injury. By contrast, rail fatalities seldom number more than a few hundred per year worldwide. On a train, one need never worry whether the approaching driver is intoxicated or distracted by his cellular phone, nor does one need to worry about falling asleep at the wheel, striking a deer crossing the road, or any of the other myriad hazards that face automobile drivers on a daily basis. One would think such a safety record would attract more enthusiasm from potential passengers.
¶5 In addition to safety, with the exception of scheduling, riding a train generally offers far more peace of mind than relying on a car. Once on board the trains, the passenger can read a newspaper, prepare for work, or simply relax and admire the scenery passing by. [7] Driving, on the other hand, requires the patience to endure traffic jams and the rude person behind who drives with his horn. Then there is the maintenance, insurance, and perhaps a monthly bill the car owner has to pay.
¶ 6 [•A] Nevertheless, cars do offer a real advantage in versatility. [•B] Plus, there's plenty of room in the trunk for carrying groceries or skis. [•C] And a car can go all those places where no rail lines have been built. [•D] Additionally, cars can be customized and infinitely varied to suit any kind of need or taste.
¶7 However, even versatility is probably not the best answer. [■A] The truth lies in the way Americans romanticize the car. [■B] Teenagers often consider themselves to be adults once they can drive. [■C] In fact, Americans have a whole body of popular culture, from dating to work to weekend vacations, built around the car—and nowhere does the train put in an appearance. [■D] Americans find the tangible, versatile car to be a marker of self-identity in a way that trains could never be.
¶ 8 [•A] No teenager dreams about cruising to pick up his or her date on the train. [•B] No businessperson wants to spend money on train tickets—he or she wants the prestige of a showy new sports car. [•C] The parent with children doesn't want to take the train either. [•D] He or she must make frequent trips to soccer practice, ballet lessons, and scout meeting and a car is the most efficient way to do so. Until cars become so expensive to purchase and operate that they are out of reach of most people, trains and other forms of transportation will always take a back seat to the automobile. Reading Passage 1 Instructions 1. Mark the introduction and underline the sentence that states the main idea
2. Mark each body paragraph and underline the topic sentence in each.
3. In the second body pragraph, underline the sentences that give teh reasons for the cretaion of the Electoral College.
4. Mark the conclusion and underline the recommendation the author makes Refer to the Reading Comp. Handout's passage on the Electoral College Time: 10 minutes. Set your timer. Do not move on until you have answered the handout questions 1. Why does the author mention the interurban light rail in paragraph 2 (¶2)?
(A) To argue that trains are superior to cars
(B) To highlight an exception to his main point
(C) To urge action on the part of urban planners
(D) To highlight a modern advance in train technology 2. How does the author describe the public's declining interest in trains?
(A) by making an analogy
(B) by citing the results of a study
(C) by investigating possible causes
(D) by providing historical narrative 3. In paragraph 4 (¶4), the author describes the relative safety of trains by
(A) comparing riding on trains to operating a cellular phone
(B) describing common arguments used by train passengers
(C) listing automobile hazards that are not experienced on trains
(D) arguing that train operators are more responsible than car drivers 4. What does the author suggest about the public's declining interest in trains?
(A) It was never shared by urban planners.
(B) It occurred quickly after the car was invented.
(C) It happened slowly over the course of the century.
(D) It was due to the inefficiencies of rail transportation. 5. It can be inferred from the information in paragraph 3 (¶3) that railroads
(A) are slightly less expensive to build than highways
(B) were most popular in the U.S. in the past 100 years
(C) never had the same level of public interest as cars
(D) are more likely to be fuel efficient than automobiles This is a "why or how" question. You just need to find the right part of the text. Then the word exception should give you answer (B). Another "how or why" question. Here, it is best to use process of elimination. Look at each of the possibilities.
Is there an analogy? No.
Are the results of a study mentioned? No.
Are possible causes investigated? Yes. Is there a historical narrative? The first sentence says "in the 19th century," but the majority of the text is about causes. So (C) is the best answer. Another "why or how" question. Once again, the challenge is finding and understanding the right part of the text. What is the author listing in the sentence marked? He is listing dangerous parts of driving, or hazards. The answer is (C) This is an "inference" question. Use process of elimination.
(A) mentions urban planners in order to distract students. But the text says nothing about urban planners in relation to THIS question.
(B) for this choice, you would have to find a mention of the invention of the car.
(C) is implied by the text, though never mentioned. You can infer that (C) is correct because of the topic sentence in paragraph #1
(D) is never mentioned Inference question. If you find the correct part of the text, you will see the phrase "almost as expensive". This means the same thing as "slightly less expensive", answer choice (A). Instructions for this Preparation Course: Each question will show you one sentence You will either fit that sentence in the text somewhere Or change the wording of that sentence In the first format, the question will give you a sentence that was not in the original text and then it will ask you to put the sentence in one of four spots, marked by a symbol and letter. Sample Questions 6. In paragraph 8 (¶8), look at the four symbols [•] that indicate where the following sentence would be added to the passage.

"No matter how efficient they are, how safe, or how inexpensive, trains cannot offer the thrill and empowerment provided by the automobile"

Where would the sentence best fit? You have to understand the question and find where in the passage it best fits. Read and ask: 1. What does the sentence start with? 2. What does it end with? 3. Does the sentence start a new idea? 4. Does it complement, or add to, an idea outside the sentence? in ANOTHER paragraph Trains never meet the romanticism of the car So where does it fit? It goes at the beginning of the paragraph because the next sentence starts with cars, and the reader's thought process needs to be led there somehow The other option gives you a sentence that is already in the text. Then you have to choose a different sentence with different words that mean the same thing. 7.Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 5 (¶5)? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

(A)Driving also requires patience in order to bear traffic jams and aggressive drivers.
(B)When driving, people need to pay attention to figure out how to navigate traffic jams and mean people behind the wheels of other cars.
(C)Driving a car, by comparison, makes you tolerant of traffic jams and the rude person behind who drives with his horn.
(D)Drivers, in contrast, need to be patient in order to cope with bad traffic and inconsiderate drivers who often honk their horns. You have to choose the sentence that changes the words, but does not change the meaning of the sentence. Three of these sentences change the meaning in important ways Let's look at the original sentence Driving, on the other hand, requires the patience to endure traffic jams and the rude person behind who drives with his horn. Choice (A) doesn't work because "on the other hand" is replaced by "also" Choice (B) says nothing about patience and the original says nothing about "figuring" something out. (B) is out In choice (C) the verb "requires" is changed to "makes you," changing the meaning. So, no to (C) Process of elimination has led us to (D). But it is also correct because:
"in contrast" = "on the other hand"
"needs to"= "requires"
"cope with"= "endure" Now, try some questions of your own. Set your timer. 4 minutes for 4 questions. 8. In paragraph 6 (¶6), look at the four symbols [•] that indicate where the following sentence would be added to the passage.
It is never necessary to wait for the car—it's ready when its driver is, and is never behind schedule.
Where would the sentence best fit?








9. Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 3 (¶3)? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

(A) Therefore, neither trains nor automobiles appear to be much better in terms of fuel consumption, assembly costs or upkeep.
(B) Therefore, trains and automobiles do not seem to have any advantages over other forms of transportation in costs of fuel, construction or maintenance.
(C) Therefore, fuel efficiency, cost of construction and maintenance prove advantageous not for trains or for automobiles.
(D) Therefore, the costs associated with fuel, construction and maintenance seem to show a particular advantage of the train over the automobile.





10. Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 1 (¶1)? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

(A) What can explain this rapid fall in railroad travel?
(B) What keeps track of this progressive loss of interest in train travel?
(C) What is responsible for this recent lack of interest in train travel?
(D) What is the reason for this continuing fall of interest in railroad travel?








11. In paragraph 7 (¶7), look at the four symbols [■] that indicate where the following sentence would be added to the passage.
For every teenager, getting his or her driver’s license is a rite of passage.
Where would the sentence best fit? The answer is B. The sentence does not start with a transition. All the other sentences do. Then only one question remains: should this sentence be followed by a transition of similarity or, like "and", "plus", or "additionally," or by a transition of contrast like "but", "yet" or "nevertheless"? Now, which answer fits best? ¶ 6 [•A] Nevertheless, cars do offer a real advantage in versatility. [•B] Plus, there's plenty of room in the trunk for carrying groceries or skis. [•C] And a car can go all those places where no rail lines have been built. [•D] Additionally, cars can be customized and infinitely varied to suit any kind of need or taste. The correct answer is (A). (B) is incorrect because it puts trains and cars into one categroy with the word "and". (C) is wrong because it introduces "other forms of transportation". (D) is wrong because it says they *do* show an advantage when the original sentence says they do not. Therefore, there does not seem to be a particular advantage in either fuel efficiency or cost of construction and maintenance associated with either automobiles or trains. The correct answer is (D). The words that make each answer choice wrong are (A)"rapid", (B) "keeps track", and (C)"recent" This is a very hard question. The answer is (B). Here is the explanation: the sentence cannot go into space (A) because this sentence is too specific to go before a sentence that general. It cannot go in place (D) because the paragraph has already stopped talking about teenagers. So you are left with (B) and (C). If you look carefully, the sentence “Teenagers often consider themselves to be adults once they can drive” explains the term “rite of passage”. That term is the end of the sentence in question. So it is logical that an explanation of that term would follow the term itself. Great job if you got that on your own! Though trains saw widespread use over the course of the 19th century, [4] the last hundred years have seen nothing but a decline in the use of railroads in the United States and a rapid growth in American car culture. While trains have begun recently to attract a little more interest from urban planners, there is no sign at all that the general public shares that interest. [2/10] What accounts for this progressive loss of interest in train travel? What could have made Americans become so enamored of their cars? ¶7 However, even versatility is probably not the best answer. [■A] The truth lies in the way Americans romanticize the car. [■B] Teenagers often consider themselves to be adults once they can drive. [■C] In fact, Americans have a whole body of popular culture, from dating to work to weekend vacations, built around the car—and nowhere does the train put in an appearance. [■D] Americans find the tangible, versatile car to be a marker of self-identity in a way that trains could never be. Drag-n-drop is a term used for moving items on a computer screen with a mouse. That's exactly what you'll do for this type of question Drag-n-Drop and two major ideas of the reading on the right side. You have several propositions of the left side of the question Notice that there are 7 answer choices And only 5 places for them That means there
are 2 propositions
that do not fit in
either category, or fit in both categories. Do NOT drag-n-drop these This is the first type of drag-n-drop question Now, try to solve the drag-n-drop. Do not continue until you are finished
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