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Least Significant Bit enhancement

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medo majeed

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Least Significant Bit enhancement


Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. The word steganography is of Greek origin and means "concealed writing" from the Greek words stego meaning "covered or protected". Generally, messages will appear to be something else: images, articles, shopping lists, or some other cover text and classically, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter.
is the most popular Steganography technique. It hides the secret message in the RGB image based on it its binary coding. LSB algorithm is used to hide the secret messages.the LSB operation occur by replace the last 3 bits of cover image (the image that used to hide the data inside it )with the bits of the message data
Least Significant Bit enhancement
using Encryption and
Randomly Selected Pixels

Thank you!
steganography in security domain
As a result of the evolution in the concept of communication media has increased the adoption of people and institutions in sending their data with high importance and this of course creates a new challenge in the protection of this data. Where he became this means more susceptible to hacked and became steganography methods alone are ineffective to protect data.
(Atallah M. Al-Shatnawi ,2012 )
the Least significant bit (LSB) steganography depending on least significant bits of the image is replaced with data bit so it can be easy to hacked by Unauthorized people because they know The locations of bits that contained the wanted data
( Saeed ahmed sohag,2013)
The dis advantage of LSB method unfortunately, it is extremely vulnerable to attacks, such as image manipulation
(Mala R s, 2014).
In LSB method Data was embedded into the rearranged pixels which were placed sequentially starting from the first row of the image, as it is easy to guess the position of the data this approach is subject to crypt analytic attacks compromising the security of the image
The LSB embedded method have security risks Represented by the way of it’s worked and another problem is the way of choosing the cover image pixel that the data would be embedded in it
For these previous reasons
The objective of this project is enhancement the LSB steganography method by tow level of security
The first level
Encryption data that we went to hide by using one of the strong security technique algorithm Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) before embedded them into cover image
The second level
Randomly selected the pixel of cover image by using RC4 algorithm before embedded the data bits inside them.
(Morteza bashardoost,2014) using the LSB method to embedded data.
He offering way to repair the shortcomings of the LSP method .he encoding of the classified information by utilizing the Vigenere encryption method in the commencement of the process before embedded them in to cover image . The sender as well as the receiver has a secret key which is used in encryption and decryption stages.

(Saeedahmedsohag ,2013) he introduce the new way for enhancing the LSB method by embedding the data in reliable (not fixed)location of pixel in cover image. he choosing the pixel that hold the embedded data depending on the host image environment
(Ruchijain , 2014) the author encoding the data before embedded by LSB. The Process of image steganography system where secret images is hide behind red, green and blue layers of cover image secret images is converted into text before embedding. After hiding process the stego image is found which is the output of embedding process
(AtallahM . AL-Shatnawi ) present another approach to enhancement the embedded data when using LSB method By hiding the secret message directly in the least two significant bits of the image pixels. The results of the proposed and LSB hiding methods were discussed and analyzed based on the ratio between the number of the identical and the non-identical bits between the pixel color values and the secret message values.
( Mamta Juneja.2014) is propose a approach for Information Security in the edge of image. the work is direct implementation of the principle that edge areas being high in contrast, color, density and frequency can tolerate more changes in their pixel values than smooth areas, so can be embedded with secret data while retaining the original characteristics of image.he using (LSB) Substitution Technique for data hiding. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is used to encryption data before hiding
in the edge of image
Image stenography techniques take the advantage of limited power of human visual system (HVS) . the LSB method is one of the embedded technique that the human eye not able to notice the changing in the image after using it .
The methodology of this project is divided into four parts:-
The first part is convert the multimedia data into binary bits
The second part the multimedia data is encrypting by using AES algorithm.
The third part is randomly ordering of cover image pixel depending on key by using RC4 algorithm .
The forth part is the ciphering data will hiding inside cover image by using Least significant bit (LSB) method .The below diagram show the steps of the proposed methodology
AES characteristics
AES was designed to have the following characteristics:
• Resistance against all known attacks.
• Speed and code compactness on a wide range of platforms.
• Design Simplicity

Convert the multimedia data into binary
The multimedia data (text , image and audio ) is converted into bytes using file format . the text and image is still without any changing or separating on them bits. but the audio bits is separated in to tow part because the structure of any audio bit is divided in to tow part (the header and the data).in our work we use the WAV audio file format .depending on(M.I.Kalil, 2011) The first 44 bits of wave audio is represent the header and the rest of bit is represent data . so we take the data after separated and encryption them after that we remarriage them with header bits before
hiding the cover image using LSB method
Encrypting data by using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm is based on the Rijndael cipher(John Schwartz, 2000).developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen, who submitted a proposal to NIST during the AES selection process (Daemen, Joan; Rijmen ,2003) .Rijndael is a family of ciphers with different key and block sizes. AES is a symmetric block cipher. This means that it uses the same key for both encryption and decryption.
Randomly ordering of cover image pixel by using RC4 algorithm
The RC4 cipher is officially named "Rivest Cipher 4", it is also known as
"Ron's Code 4".The RC4 algorithm generates a pseudo-random keystream that is then used to generate the cipher text (by XORing it with the plaintext). It is called pseudo- random because it generates a sequence of numbers that only approximates the properties of random numbers. The sequence of bytes generated is not random since the output is always the same for a given input but it
has to approximate random properties
to make it harder to crack
Hiding the cipher data inside cover image by using(LSB)
This approach is very simple(Bender, W., D. Gruhl, and N. Morimoto,1996). In this method the least significant bits of some or all of the bytes inside an image is replaced with a bits of the secret message.
wave file format description
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