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Rwanda and Genocide

Daily class activities.
by

Melanie Gamache

on 21 May 2013

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Transcript of Rwanda and Genocide

Rwanda and Genocide Rwanda is: April 29, 2013 Watch "Hotel Rwanda" May 2-3, 2013 I will be away today. May 6, 2013 Questions from yesterday? May 7, 2013 Notes and "Ghosts of Rwanda" minor assignment May 9, 2013 May 10, 2013 Located in Central Africa Home to a temperate climate with two rainy seasons. Populated with mostly rural inhabitants. A place of approx. 12 million citizens Currently dealing with excessive mortality due to AIDS, infant mortality, low population growth, and low life expectancy. Characterized by a population where: 42% is between the ages of 0-14. Rwanda was once controlled by Belgium. (1919-1962) At that time, there were two tribes that populated the agricultural region: Hutus (crop growers) Tutsis (herdsmen) For 600 years the two groups shared the business of farming, essential for survival, between them. They have also shared their language, their culture, and their nationality. There have been many intermarriages. European Colonial Structure: Emphasized the need to have a ruling tribe and a subordinate tribe. Belgium chose Tutsis to be the ruling class as their lower number suggested aristocracy, they were seen to have a more "European" appearance. The Result? Some Tutsis began to act and feel very superior. This created a political divide between the tribes. European colonial powers also introduced modern weapons and modern methods of waging war. Missionaries, too, came from Europe, bringing a new political twist: the church taught the Hutu to see themselves as oppressed, and so helped to inspire revolution. The Hutus chose to fight back. In 1956 their rebellion began (over 100,000 lives lost).
By 1959 they had seized power and were stripping Tutsi communities of their lands. Many Tutsis left to nearby countries, where they formed the Front Patriotique Rwandais, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), trained their soldiers, and waited. Hutus in Power The Hutus were delighted at their power but their inexperience in running a gov't soon caused problems. Hutus continued to repress Tutsis (not allowing them in secondary schools or university. The RPF attacked in 1990 and a civil war began. A ceasefire was achieved in 1993 (with the help of the UN) In 1996, the Rwandan president's plane was shot down. The Hutus believed it was the Tutsis and the Hutus planned a "Final Solution". The "Final Solution" called all Hutu civilians to wipe the Tutsis out. This included moderate Hutus who weren't anti-Tutsi as well as Tutsi wives or husbands. Hotel Rwanda Watch the film, "Hotel Rwanda". >> Implied violence and gore. Think about: what is a genocide? Instructions: Go over the rest of the questions for "Hotel Rwanda". In groups, begin watching/taking notes on your assigned section for "Ghosts of Rwanda". Watch "Ghosts of Rwanda". Each group will have time to put together a concise response to share with the rest of the class on your assigned topic. He was for awhile they only foresight journalist in Rwanda, he would broadcast live what was happening.
He talked about what he saw and how the UN soldier made a difference.
He wanted the world to know how the Heroic.
Captain mbaye saved at least a 100 lives. Mark Doyle – BBC News She came across a group of people that were hiding at a hospital in Rwanda.
One woman told her how scared she was begging for help.
Just then they heard shooting and left thinking that they were safe but not the group of people left behind. Katelijne hermans –Belgium TV He travelled for several weeks with the Tutsi RDF forces near the end of the killings.
He talked about walking through a church and see bodies stacked against a wall, kids bodies hiding under pews, he had to step over dead bodies to get to the church. Fergal Reane – BBC News The Journalists The plan of the extremists was to eliminate all the Tutsi people.
The Interahamwe was the group of Hutu soldiers that were set up at check stops and were sent in to find and kill the Tutsi people and the Hutu people that were helping defend the Tutsis.
Colonel Bagasora was the leader of the Hutu rebel army and led the genocide against the Tutsis. He was a Hutu extremist.
Bagosora was the reason for establishing paramilitary "self-defence" units, the Interahamwe, that would run in every commune in the country after the genocide Bagasora was imprisoned for life The Hutus Valentina was a Hutu who hid with her parents along with many other people in a church in hopes that people would come to murder them because a church was a safe place. Eventually the Tutsi army invaded the church and murdered everyone in there. Valentina managed to avoid being killed by hiding underneath dead bodies. After the army left, she remained in the church for 43 days, and managed to stay alive by playing dead whenever the army or dogs entered the church. Valentina Kagme was the leader of the RPF who plotted and planned all of the RPF attacks which eventually lead them to taking over the country. He negotiated peace agreements to end the civil war and to stop fighting, but when the genocide began, Kagme organzied even more attacks and refused to stop fighitng against the Hutu’s until all the killing had stopped. President Kagme Rwandan Patriotic Front – tutsi rebel army fighting against the hutu’s and wanted to take over Rwanda. During the civil war, they ceased fire in hopes that the killing would stop. After the RPF was accused of shooting down a plane and killing the president, the genocide started again between the hututs and the tutsi’s. By 1993, the RPF controlled a significant amount of territory in Rwanda and by 1994 they controlled the entire country. The Tutsis Saved 65,000 lives
Philippe Gaillard – challenged extremist government, begged Bagasora to stop; called Geneva to complain about attacks on Red Cross.
Mujawarmariya – smuggled out of Rwanda to USA to ask for help; was told “America has no friends only interest. There is no American interest in Rwanda.” Response of the International Red Cross and Rwandan human rights activist Saved many lives
Stayed at orphanage to try to protect the children there.
Asked the Hutu Prime Minister to save the orphans (he said he was aware of the orphanage and that they’d be spared). Adventist Missionary Carl Wilkins Could have stopped radio signals (propaganda that kept the killings going) but didn’t because of Freedom of Speech act.
State spokesperson talked of “acts” of genocide but not genocide itself. Non-intervention policy because no American interest.
Clinton – declared Rwanda a high risk, didn’t take the situation seriously; restated that if Americans gain something they will intervene. Visited Rwanda after genocide was over to pay respected but didn’t officially apologize.
Laura Lane – worked at American embassy in Rwanda; wanted to keep embassy open; tried to hide Tutsis and assist them in escaping
Albright – removed peacekeepers; showed remorse after about not pushing for support for Rwanda. Claimed America didn’t know it was so bad.
Lake – listened to Rwandan human rights story but didn’t do anything. Showed remorse after. The United States Diagne – saved many refugees Troops were peacekeepers.
General Romeo Dallaire – there for original peace treaty; talked to Interahamwe about stopping killing
Other countries were scared to send troops or more peacekeepers.
After the Holocaust, world swore they’d never let genocide happen again.
Avoidance of the word “genocide” The United Nations Ghosts of Rwanda Worksheet Key Complete the "Ghosts of Rwanda" Minor Assignment - due Monday! Watch "Ambush in Mogadishu" (see link on Edline) and complete the Minor Assignment. May 13, 2013 Finish watching "Ambush in Mogadishu" and complete the minor assignment for it. Due Tomorrow! Begin "Rwanda and Somalia" Questions. You will have tomorrow's class to work on them and they will be due Wednesday, May 15. May 14, 2013 Complete Rwanda and Somalia questions - due tomorrow! Hand in "Ambush in Mogadishu" assignment - due today! May 15, 2013 Genocide Watch notes and "Will to Intervene" video Rwanda and Somalia Questions due! Go over Reverse Interview - due Monday, May 21. Test review available today! Rwanda and Genocide test Wednesday, May 22! May 16, 2013 Finish "Genocide Watch" notes and "Will to Intervene" video. Complete Reverse Interview Questions. The Reverse Interview is due on Tuesday, May 21! May 17, 2013 Complete the "Rwandan Survivor Stories" assignment - due at the end of today's class. Reminder: Test on Wednesday! Work on Reverse Interview (due Tuesday) or study for test! May 21, 2013 Review Class! Test tomorrow! Reverse Interviews due today!
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