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The Vietnam War (1954 - 1975)

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Chelsea Perez

on 11 May 2011

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Transcript of The Vietnam War (1954 - 1975)

The Vietnam War The Vietnamese were at war for independence from French rule between 1945 and 1954 In 1954 the French were defeated
at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and
were forced to leave vietnam Still the Geneva Accords gave Vietnam, Laos, and
Cambodia there independence April 26th, 1954. and Vietnam was temporarily divided at the 17th parallel until the elections in 1956. the communist leader of the north was Ho Chi Minh. And the democratic leader of the south was Ngo Dihn Diem The Vietnam war began in 1954 due to conflict
between the north and south Vietnamese. The United States became involved due to their policy on containment which is the united states goal to stop the spread of communism. But before the Vietnam war... Brought to you by:
David, Monica, & Chelsea Then followed the Geneva Accords,
That formally eneded the war
between France and Vietnam The North was a communist country,
and was controlled by China And the South,
a democratic country,

Called the
Republic of Vietnam South Vietnam Quickly became an ally of the
United States and Diem was deemed "Our Man"
In Vietnam afterwards the U.s and other countries became members of the SOutheast Aisa Treaty Organization (SEATO) This organization was designed to resist the spread of communism in Southeast Asia During this time Eisenhower was President and explained the "domino theory" thought up by his administration. The "domino theory" stated that if one country fell to
communism then all the other countries would follow. Called the
Democratic Republic of Vietnam the U.S. begins to give aid to South Vietnam and offers to train the Southern army. President Eisenhower pledges his support for Diem and offers military aid. In 1956, the Geneva accords called for the unifying election and Diem refused participation in it This led Diem to imprison any and all who did oppose him the South Vietnamese began joining the communists
because they opposed Diems rule. The communist party of vietnam wanted to
unite the country by political means only But they were urged to adopt
a more violent approach They began organizing armies and constructing the Ho Chi Minh trail The Ho Chi Minh trail ran from North Vietnam to south running along the neighboring countries of Loas and Cambodia Viet minh are sent from the north to
bring down the south Causing Diem to send armed forces to capture the viet Minh Many people were taken and killed and most of them innocent And due to their fear of being arrested they fled to North Vietnam On December 20th, 1960 the National Liberation Front (NLF) was created. NLF was also known as the Viet Cong, which ment vietnamese communists The Viet Cong was a guerrilla group that fought against the south vietnamese to unite Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh On January 20th, 1961 John Fitzgerald Kennedy was inaugurated into the
35th President of the United states In his address he stated,"...we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to insure the survival and the success of liberty." In May JFK begins to send Green Beret soldiers to Vietnam
to train the Southern army to fight the Viet Cong the south is overwhelmed by the Viet Cong
and their attacks. So President Kennedy ordered additional military advisors with American transport to direct South Vietnamese troops in battle. But by the end of 1961 The Viet Cong already control most of the countryside in south vietnam. The Viet Cong had a system of underground tunnels allowing them to ambush the southern amry By this time the U.s was involved in the war
physically helping the south vietnamese During a presidential press conference, President Kennedy was asked if the soldiers in vietnam were in combat and Kennedy states that we are not On February 27, 1962, Diems presidential palace was bombed
by two south vietnamese pilots They were using American made WWII fighter planes Diem and his brother made it out safely In March the viet cong began operation sunrise to resettle villages In result, Diem orders bombing raids on suspected villages controlled by the Viet COng These raids were carried out by south vietnamese and american soldiers At this time Defense Secretary McNamara visited vietnam and reports back that we are "winning the war" Kennedy also signs the Foreign Assistance Act of 1962.
This was to provide countries on the rim of communist attack with military aid
In May 1963 Diem refused Buddist celebration Causing Buddist riots in south vietnam, resulting in police to shoot them. This caused a death of one woman and eight children That summer Buddist demonstrations grew and several buddist monks publicly burn themselves as an act of protest. News and photos of this demonstration reach America Shocking americans and President Kennedy The Kennedy administration begins to doubt their association with Diem President Kennedy sends U.S. ambassador Henry Lodge to Vietnam Lodge meets with Diem and speaks to him about cutting ties with his brother Diem refuses and also refuses to discuss similar matters with Lodge Lodge reports to Kennedy that there is no way this war can be won under a Diem Administration A SOuth Vietnamese general talked possibilities of a coup against Diem to the CIA in Saigon. The coup against Diem was encouraged by the U.S State Department Kennedy gave Lodge the job to manage the problems in Saigon But Kennedy says there should be no encouragement towards a coup But the coup is carried out and the U.S. did not interfear with the plans of it On November 2, 1963, Diem and his brother Nhu were killed after surrenduring in a Catholic Church After Diem's assassination SOuth Vietnam became vulnerable to attack and the Viet COng used this opportunity to expand their control over the rural areas Almost three weeks after Diems assassination President JF Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas by Lee Harvey Oswald Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into
office that every same day on Air
Force One in Dallas, Texas Two days after, LBJ declares to Lodge that we will not lose vietnam and by the end of the year there were more than 16,300 military advisors in the south. The U.S then begin plans of bombing North Vietnam and the Ho Chi Minh trail on July 30, 1964 South Vietnamese troops took the offensive attack upon 2 small N. Vietnamese occupied islands that resided in the Gulf of Tonkin.

An American destroyer was located in the Gulf of TOnkin at this time.
after the attack North Vietnamese patrol boats fired on the U.S.S Maddox

The captin ordered an attack on the patrol boats sinking one and damaging the others.

These attacks resulted in the first bombing of North Vietnam

On august 7th U.S. Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which issued limitless war power to the president Johnson. The first Viet Cong attack on American soldiers occured at Bien Hoa air base

Following this, LBJ dismissed all thought of air strikes in North Vietnam. After LBJ's re-election he is told that our involvement in Vietnam is not helping Shortly after the Viet Cong attack more U.S. soldiers

Johnson states that he has had enough, and authorizes an operation for the U.s. to bomb a North Vietnamese military base. During this time Uprisings in the south lead to the fall of General Khanh the leader who took over after Diem's death Now the south is taken over by a new government, led by Dr. Phan Huy Quat Operation Rolling Thunder began on March 2, 1965

Bombings began on the Ho Chi Minh trail, and attacking targets in North Vietnam

This operation was ment to last 8 weeks but ended up lasting for three years Few days later Johnson approved the use of Napalm in operation rolling thunder
Despite casualties The U.S began sending more and more troops to Vietnam American bombings in Vietnam sparked protests
of students in Washington This caused the death of
innocent villagers and destroyed food and crops At this time the draft began because ther were not enough volunteers to aid the effort

With more young men being drafted, began the anti-war movement

Johnson signs a law that states burning your draft card is illegal Even with the increase of soldiers the U.S. and southern army cannot stop the North Vietnamese army from moving soldiers and supplies on the Ho Chi Minh trail Johnson begins search and destroy missions to find Viet cong and NVS. With the decisions Johnson had been making,congress tried to Repeal the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution althought the attempt failed. On January 31st, the turning point in the war began with the Tet Offensive

This was a series of surprise attacks by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese they were hoping that with this attack
they would win the war sooner On march 31st, Johnson shocks the nation by telling he does not wish to be re-elected

And states that peace with vietnam is ready to be negotiated Operation Rolling thunder finally came to an end

Over the course of those three years over a million tons
of bombs have been dropped in Vietnam The following year Richard Nixon was inaugurated into presidency Peace talks in Paris begin with the U.S., South and North Vietnam, and the viet cong all present
Nixon begins a movement called Vietnamization

This movemet was a step towards ending the war and
gradually pulling out troops Nixon resigns as president due to the Watergate scandal Making Gerald R. Ford the next President of the U.S. President Ford pardons all draft evaders and military deserters North Vietnam begins to invade the south with nothing more the U.s. can do On April 30th, 1975 the last troops leave Vietnam bringing as many people as they could to survive the fall of Saigon and south vietnam.
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