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Cause of Civil War

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by

Ellen Hodge

on 31 May 2015

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Transcript of Cause of Civil War

1820

1850
1860
1800's
1854
Causes of the Civil War (ch. 15)

Missouri Compromise of 1820
Purpose:
At this time 11 free & 11 slave states
To reach an agreement between Northern & Southern states
To maintain a balance in Congress between slave & free states
Admitted Missouri as slave state & Maine as a free state
Stated joined union 2 at a time (1 free/1 slave)
Also...
Regional Differences Developing 1800's
North: Industry; Factories

West: farming - crops to feed factory workers

Canals; Railroads running East-->West

Immigrants & Easterners moved West


Encouraged strong ties between North/Midwest
Compromise of 1850
Wilmot Proviso
(1846) tries to stop slavery expansion in new territories; never voted into law

Southern P.O.V.: slaves viewed as property-unconstitutional to not bring their property anywhere in the country

Results: shows slavery issue can no longer be ignored; becomes a key political issue; leads to the "Free-Soil Party"
Kansas-Nebraska Act ~ 1854
Settling of the Nebraska Territory -
divide into 2 territories (KS & NE)

Slave state or free state?
Let the people decide (popular sovereignty)
"Bleeding Kansas" ~ 1855
Results:
by 1855 more pro-slavery settlers
5,000 Missourians came illegally to vote
anti-slavery settlers boycotted & formed own gov't
Outlawed slavery in the Louisiana Territory above the 36 30 latitude line
South: Plantations
Wealthy few controlled society
Profit/economy dependent on slave labor
Relied on export of goods - foreign countries
Very little industry in South
This act kept the union (United States) together
for another 30 years
Senator Stephen Douglas
Illnois

Results: Bill passed
Missouri Compromise repealed

Southerners Northerners
Why?
Effects: In Lawrence, KS -Armed pro-slavery settlers led an attack on governor of antislavery
(A.K.A. Sack of Lawrence)
John Brown
abolitionist- to avenge "Sack of Lawrence"- led revolt ; (first revolt)
Led to a 3 year civil war in Kansas
land from Mexican Cession ~ free or slave states? (Congress approval needed for statehood)
Henry Clay
Kentucky
Stephen Douglas
Illinois
California's statehood issue-to upset the balance between free & slave states in Congress
California free state
Slavery abolished in Washington, D.C.
Congress would stop passing laws on slavery
Popular Sovereignty -voting by the people for remaining territories
Fugitive Slave Law to be passed
This plan was approved for the "sake of preserving the union"
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
purpose: to recapture runaway slaves
Specifics:
fugitives held w/o arrest warrant
no trial by jury; ruled by federal commissioner
(earned $5 for release; $10 for returning to slaveholder)
Northerners required to help; faced being fined
Slave catchers in North-issue could no longer be ignored
abolitionists - opposed to slavery
Harriet Tubman
Underground Railroad
Harriet Beecher Stowe

Frederick Douglass
freed slave/speaker
Sojourner Truth
freed slave/speaker
William Lloyd Garrison
Settlers from both sides of issue
flock to Kansas Territory-
vote!
Violence in the Senate!!
Congress - 1856
Sen. Charles Sumner (MA) delivered speech against slavery/SC senator (Sen. Butler);Sen. Brooke (relative of Butler) defended him by attacking him with a cane-hit him 30 times!
Results: Court ruled against Scott
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney declared:
Scott not a U.S. citizen - couldn't sue
Scott lives in Missouri - a slave state; time in free territory didn't matter
Slavery couldn't be banned in territories-unconstitutional-against 5th amendment-property rights
Dred Scott Supreme Court case (1856-1857)
Background:
Dred Scott-Missouri slave
Owner took him to live in territory where slavery was illegal; returned to Missouri
Owner died; sued for freedom
Further Conflicts 1856-1859
Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1859)
Background:
John Brown - Northerner
Planned to capture weapons in U.S. arsenal
Planned to inspire slave revolt
Believed he was righting a wrong against slavery
Results:
No slaves joined fight
Marines attacked Brown
Brown & others captured/killed
Brown tried for murder/treason; then hanged
Later seen as hero/matyr by Northerners
Southerners enraged
What has changed?
Underground Railroad
escape to freedom in Canada
NOT an actual train route below ground
aided by abolitionist supporters
hidden in homes; traveling at night
messages passed through songs; symbols
http://www.history.com/topics/harpers-ferry
Full transcript