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Transcript of Dialects (continued)
Dialects are ...
Write the term for speakers of different language varieties being able to understand each other.
Give two examples of dialect continua*.
That's the plural form of .
mutually intelligible varieties of the same language
Mandarin dialect continuum
Japanese dialects and Japonic languages
Diglossia is ...
when individuals speak more than one dialect or language (often in different social contexts)
True or False?
Standard Language forms are never considered dialects.
FALSE! Every language form is a dialect.
I didn't make up that word.
A bit deeper...
is sometimes one-sided.
is when speakers of one language variety can understand speakers of the other, but not vice versa.
This can be due to
Syntax and lexicon are similar,
but pronunciation is different
The more influential dialect is
somewhat familiar to everyone
Swedish and Danish
Castellano (Spanish) and Portuguese
European and Brazilian Portuguese
European and Quebec French
Bulgarian and Russian
Scots and American English
Quebec French and European French*
Western and Southern American English
difficulty due to phonological complexity
familiar due to political or cultural influence
What about American English versus British English?
is when a language group has more than one standard form*
A language like this is called a language.
* Like AmE and BrE; or Brazilian and European French,
Portuguese, or Spanish; also like Dutch and German,
and like the Scandinavian "languages".
... Basically, it's complicated.
Mutual intelligibility is about how dialects or languages are similar...
For that, we can use .
a dialectal boundary line based on a specific linguistic trait
What if we want to know how they're different?
Where do different dialects come from?
refugees - not much linguistic influence
conquerors - lots of influence
assimilation (like the Romans)
annihilation (like in North America)
superstratum - the top (newer) layers of a language
substratum - the bottom (older) layers of a language
English as a hybrid language
rivers, mountains, islands, deserts, oceans
a religious, ethnic, or national minority
a dialect that preserves a number of linguistic features lost in other dialects
multiple conservative dialects in the same region can result in a relic area
a dialect that exhibits linguistic innovation not found in other dialects
Languages change over time and distance
Is this a dialect or an accent?
Old English (Germanic) + Norman French (1066 AD)
"common" words like words for body parts and family members
more "distinguished" words -- anything to do with court or making laws or royalty
compare to German:
Hand, Fuß, Mutter, Bruder
(all directly from French)
mixed areas like animals
Types of dialects
a regionally-defined dialect:
a socially-defined dialect
an ethnically- or racially-defined dialect
Southern, Western, Continental, Insular, etc.
working-class, middle class, high class
Urdu, Hindi, Yiddish, etc.
AAVE (African American Vernacular English)
the dialectal form furthest from the standard
a mix of dialectal form and standard form
the standard or "prestige" form
(multiple possible levels)
Example: Jamaican English
"im ah wok oba deh suh"
"im workin ova deh suh"
"(H)e (h)is workin' over dere"
"He is working over there."
from Wikipedia > Jamaican English
These classifications can overlap.
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