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Dialects (continued)

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by

Andrew Bayles

on 3 March 2014

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Transcript of Dialects (continued)

Dialects
(continued)
Dialects are ...
Write the term for speakers of different language varieties being able to understand each other.
Give two examples of dialect continua*.
That's the plural form of .
continuum
mutual intelligibility
mutually intelligible varieties of the same language
Dutch-German
Italian-Occitan-Catalan-Spanish-Portuguese
Arabic languages
Chinese languages
Mandarin dialect continuum
Japanese dialects and Japonic languages
Diglossia is ...
when individuals speak more than one dialect or language (often in different social contexts)
True or False?
Standard Language forms are never considered dialects.
FALSE! Every language form is a dialect.
Review
I didn't make up that word.
A bit deeper...
Mutual intelligibility
is sometimes one-sided.
Assymetric
intelligibility
is when speakers of one language variety can understand speakers of the other, but not vice versa.
This can be due to
{
phonology
familiarity
OR
Syntax and lexicon are similar,
but pronunciation is different
The more influential dialect is
somewhat familiar to everyone
Swedish and Danish
Castellano (Spanish) and Portuguese
European and Brazilian Portuguese
European and Quebec French
Bulgarian and Russian
Scots and American English
Quebec French and European French*
Western and Southern American English
difficulty due to phonological complexity
familiar due to political or cultural influence
What about American English versus British English?
?
Pluricentricity
is when a language group has more than one standard form*
A language like this is called a language.
pluricentric
* Like AmE and BrE; or Brazilian and European French,
Portuguese, or Spanish; also like Dutch and German,
and like the Scandinavian "languages".
... Basically, it's complicated.
But wait...
Mutual intelligibility is about how dialects or languages are similar...
For that, we can use .
isoglosses
isogloss
a dialectal boundary line based on a specific linguistic trait
What if we want to know how they're different?
Y'all isogloss
Where do different dialects come from?
migration
refugees - not much linguistic influence
conquerors - lots of influence
assimilation (like the Romans)
annihilation (like in North America)
linguistic strata
superstratum - the top (newer) layers of a language
substratum - the bottom (older) layers of a language
English as a hybrid language
isolation
geographic
rivers, mountains, islands, deserts, oceans
social
a religious, ethnic, or national minority
language "purity"
conservative dialect
a dialect that preserves a number of linguistic features lost in other dialects
multiple conservative dialects in the same region can result in a relic area
innovative dialect
a dialect that exhibits linguistic innovation not found in other dialects
uninhabited
uninhabited
uninhabited
inhabited?
inhabited
inhabited
inhabited
inhabited
inhabited
inhabited
migration
Languages change over time and distance
Is this a dialect or an accent?
Old English (Germanic) + Norman French (1066 AD)
(conquerors)
substratum
superstratum
"common" words like words for body parts and family members
more "distinguished" words -- anything to do with court or making laws or royalty
hand
foot
mother
brother
compare to German:
Hand, Fuß, Mutter, Bruder
legislature
legal
royal
court
(all directly from French)
mixed areas like animals
alive
dead
sheep
mutton
cow
beef
hen
poultry
pig (swine)
pork
cf. German
Schaaf
Kuh
Huhn
Schwein
cf. French
mouton
bœuf
poule
porc
Types of dialects
topolect
sociolect
ethnolect
a regionally-defined dialect:
a socially-defined dialect
(think topography)
an ethnically- or racially-defined dialect
Southern, Western, Continental, Insular, etc.
working-class, middle class, high class
Urdu, Hindi, Yiddish, etc.
AAVE (African American Vernacular English)
basilect
mesilect
acrolect
the dialectal form furthest from the standard
a mix of dialectal form and standard form
the standard or "prestige" form
(multiple possible levels)
Example: Jamaican English
"im ah wok oba deh suh"
"im workin ova deh suh"
"(H)e (h)is workin' over dere"
"He is working over there."
}
from Wikipedia > Jamaican English
low
high
These classifications can overlap.
Dialects
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