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Imperialism in Morocco
Transcript of Imperialism in Morocco
Prior to the age of Imperialism Morocco was run by the native people that were called Berbers. Morocco had been a hereditary monarchy for over a thousand years. During this period of time many different countries tried to take over Morocco, none were able to accomplish it but these different countries left their unique marks on the country. Morocco has always been a trade oriented country throughout history because of its location which is having access to both the Mediterranean sea and the Atlantic ocean, plus the rest of Africa inland. Many trading posts and ports have been established in the country in the past. Late 1700s civil war broke out in Morocco ending in the rule of a sultan named Moulay Slimane. He weakened Morocco by cutting ties and trades with the European. Morocco was then left vulnerable to foreign interference which takes us to Imperialism in Morocco during 19th and 20th century.
Motives for Imperialism
Morocco is situated at ideal place for trade (strait of Gibraltar: Mediterranean sea & Atlantic ocean)
Easy way to reach rest of Africa for resources & materials
Coastal area of Morocco is very rich in many resources
Situated near Spain & Europe ( easy political control)
Positive effects for Moroccans
French imposed a functional political system
Moroccans were introduced to new and more advanced technology
Morocco became more diverse culturally
electricity, running water, trains and roads built
Negative effects for Moroccans
Moroccans pressured to convert to Christianity
Moroccan labor was used to build all the new architecture
French handpicked Moroccan leaders using their power to their benefit
French schools built and Moroccan children forced to attend
Moroccans had to pay heavy taxes for all the new development
Moroccans forced to assimilate to a more European culture
Imperialism had a more positive impact/effect on Morocco. It did have some negative aspects but the positive ones over rode them. Because of imperialism Morocco improved in their economic, political and social ways making their country a better place.
How the Imperial Countries took over (Spain and France)
Imperialism in Morocco
By Renata Navarro
Reason #1: Economic
Reason #3: Social
Dispute over Spain's Ceuta enclave. Spain then declares war and wins more of an enclave and a bigger Ceuta in the settlement.
The Spanish then create a protectorate in the coastal areas of Morocco
France and Spain carve out zones of influence.
The algeciras conference happens in Spain where France and Spain go against each other to police Moroccans ports and collect custom fees
Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Treaty of Fez which is administered y a French Resident-General. Also Spain is still and continues to operate Morocco's coastal protectorate. (Sultan has a largely figurehead role).
A tribal rebellion breaks out in the Rif mountains which is then suppressed by the French and Spanish troops
Istiqlal (party of independence) founds to press for independence.
In March the French protectorate ends after unrest and strong nationalist sentiment from the Moroccans. Spain is still able to keep its 2 coastal enclaves and the Sultan Mohammed becomes the king of Morocco in 1957.
After Imperialism Morocco was left with many positive aspects one of them being connected to economics. Morocco developed as a result from colonization, many Moroccans are able to either speak French or Spanish which is a great boost in tourism and also Morocco has a lot of support from French companies, one of them being the Paris club of creditors assisting in the economic stability. Furthermore, improvements that were done by the French helped Morocco's economy more. Morocco's economy today is in charge of providing a big percentage of the worlds phosphate production as well as exporting other natural resources to some countries. Morocco is the largest exporter of phosphate and the third largest in the world to produce the resource.
Another positive aspect would be Political. Because of imperialism Morocco now has a prime minister, the Moroccan government is more democratic and it has a supreme court which is a great advancement. In addition the French influence can be seen in Moroccan law and government. The rules and laws that are in place for Morocco originated from the laws of France. Now Moroccan laws are based off of French laws and laws that apply to islamic religion.
The last big positive aspect connects to the social view. Morocco is now more culturally diverse and society as a whole has things that not only come from their culture but also the Spanish and French culture. More specifically the French language has become widely spoken in Morocco. It is usually spoken in business and government. Even though it is not the native language more then half of the population are able to speak French. Moroccans can also speak Spanish but it is not seen as much. Another part of the social aspect would be that the schools are very good in Morocco because of the Spanish and French, because they created more secular schools that were less focused on religion. All in all French and Spanish imperialism has left a big impact on Morocco.
At the time of imperialism European countries had huge feelings of nationalism which made them proud of their country and have the want to spread their culture. The Spanish and French wanted to colonize Morocco because they wanted more power. France had already taken over Algeria which bordered Morocco. In the late 1800s Morocco's financial instability led to European countries intervening to protect investment and demand economic concessions. Morocco was not taken over violently because the Moroccans were in no position to fight. So the Spanish and French troops took over and then divided the land. One of their strategies was putting muslims and Berbers against each other and that helped them maintain Morocco.
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The French and Spanish did leave some negative aspects behind like leaving the country in debt, leaving some parts of the country undeveloped, religious and ethnic groups segregated and cultural divides differing views on independence but all in all the positive aspects over ride these negative ones. The French and Spanish left the country organized and a better place for the people of Morocco.
Another way that the French Protectorate still has an impact in Morocco today is through the many railways, roads and trading posts built in Morocco. Today because of the French Morocco has one of the most developed systems of infrastructure in Africa.