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Collaborative Learning Project

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radhika kedia

on 18 January 2014

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Transcript of Collaborative Learning Project

In the introduction and the first chapter of his book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell raises awareness of the tipping point in order for us to realize how social epidemics occur. He says that
the tipping point is "That one dramatic moment in an epidemic when everything can change all at once . . ."
. Social
epidemics work like a sickness, such as the flu, does.
He argues that
the three epidemic characteristics are "One, contagiousness; two, the fact that little causes can have big effects; and three, that change happens not gradually but at one dramatic moment . . ."
. He uses specific examples, such as the Hush Puppies and syphilis epidemics, to demonstrate how epidemics take place and what factors are necessary for them to occur. He says that
the three necessary factors are: the Law of the Few, the Stickiness Factor, and the Power of Context.
He argues that it only takes a few people to start a social epidemic and that the trend must be convincing or catchy in order for it to "stick". He also argues that the circumstances in which a social epidemic start are important. He concludes the chapters with research questions which he will explore in later chapters.
Question Generation
Works Cited
Divyanshu Bhartiya Biman Gujral
Ashudeep Singh Radhika Kedia
IIT Kanpur DA-IICT

Question generation for Discussion Facilitation
Evaluation of Summaries
and Extraction of
Abstract sentences
-Question Generation from Paragraphs at UPenn: QGSTEC System Description

-Question Generation via Overgenerating Transformations and Ranking
Michael Heilman and Noah A. Smith

-Automatic Gap-fill Question Generation from Text Books
Manish Agarwal and Prashanth Mannem

-Similarity Measures for Text Document Clustering
Anna Huang

-SentiWordNet
-Illinois POS Tagger

-Mathieu's blog: implementation of tdm
Mark Unmovable Phrases and Generate Possible Question Phrases
Choose the unmovable phrases.
Like, we cannot move the phrases under conjunctions e.g. the question "Who did John meet and Mary?" cannot be generated from the sentence -"John met Bob and Mary."
Main verb is decomposed and the sentence undergoes a WH-transformation to generate possible question phrases
Question Ranker
Question Transducer
Heilman uses a model based on a logistic regression .
It defines the probability of acceptability given the question and the source text.
Results
Questions Generated
An Example
Sentences Selected
by sorting them on the basis of their
Jaccard Coefficient
This role is analogous to the category of people that Gladwell identifies as “Connectors,” who play an inordinate role in helping new trends begin to “tip,” or spread rapidly.
The three “rules of epidemics” that Gladwell identifies are: the Law of the Few, the Stickiness Factor, and the Power of Context.
In most of these scenarios, whether the event in question is the spread of syphilis in Baltimore’s mean streets or the sudden spike in the popularity of Hush Puppies sales, there is a crucial juncture, which Gladwell terms the “tipping point,” that signals a key moment of crystallization that unifies isolated events into a significant trend.
Subjectivity
Motivation
In contrast to IRE(Initiate-Response-Evaluate) pattern where students learn facts,
discussion
facilitates understanding of the concepts by applying their learning.

Discussion helps in the following ways
:
Helps students construct explanations and reason effectively.
Students learn how to communicate within a group.
Cross questioning helps in imbibing knowlegde and better retention.

Hence, students should be provided with suitable problems to facilitate and trigger discussions amongst them.
Software Idea
Possible Discussion Questions
Create a term-document matrix for the given text and summaries. Extract sentences on the basis of following:
Category factor: Measure of document being in a particular topic.
tf-idf: Measure of importance of words in a document.
Jaccard coefficient with original document: Measure of similarity between summary and chapter.
Cosine distance with previous sentence in summary: Measure of context in summary.
Norm of document: Measure of document being informative.
How do social epidemics occur? Give examples.
What are the three characteristics of epidemics?
What are the factors that are necessary for epidemics?
What is the tipping point?
VISION: Question generation to facilitate discussion by sentence extraction and subjectivity analysis
Basis of Extraction
LSA
Latent Semantic Analysis
(Singular Value Decomposition)
Analyzes relationships between a set of document and terms.
Given a term-document matrix, it creates a 'n' dimensional vector for each document, n being the number of topics in that document.
d[i]={w1,w2,....wn} , wi being the factor for that category.
TF-IDF
tf(t,d) = f(t,d) / sum(f(w,d))

idf(t,D) = log(|D| / sum(f(d,t))

tf-idf(t,d,D) = tf(t,d) * idf(t,D)

Tf-Idf weighs the frquency of a term t in a document d with a factor that discounts its with its appearences in whole corpus.
Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequeny
Jaccard Coefficient
Measures similarity between two documents.
Similarity as intersection divided by union.
sim = A.B / (|A|*|A| + |B|*|B| -A.B)
Cosine Distance
Measures similarity between two documents as the angle between the two vectors.
sim = A.B / |A|*|B|
(Huang et al., 2008)
Quite Subjective
Elaborate Answers
Good for Understanding
Phase 1: Sentence Extraction
Phase 2: Question Generation
(Heilman et al., 2009)

1. What are: the Law of the Few, the Stickiness Factor, and the Power of Context?
2. Who play an inordinate role in helping new trends?
3. Do Connectors begin to tip?
4. How many rules of epidemics that Gladwell identifies are: the Law of the Few, the Stickiness Factor, and the Power of Context?
5. Do Connectors play an inordinate role in helping new trends?
6. Are the three rules of epidemics that Gladwell identifies: the Law of the Few, the Stickiness Factor, and the Power of Context?
7. What do Connectors play?
8. Where do Connectors begin?
9. What do Connectors begin to?
10. What are the three rules of epidemics that Gladwell identifies:?
11. What is analogous to the category of people that Gladwell identifies as Connectors begin to tip, or spread rapidly?
12. Who begin to tip?
0.2411 Why do connectors play an inordinate role in helping new trends ?
0.125 What are the three rules of epidemics that Gladwell identifies : ? Discuss in detail.
0.125 What are : the Law of the Few , the Stickiness Factor , and the Power of Context ? Discuss in detail.
0.125 Are the three rules of epidemics that Gladwell identifies : the Law of the Few , the Stickiness Factor , and the Power of Context ?
0.1116 Gladwell asserts that most trends , styles , and phenomena are born and spread according to routes of transmission and conveyance that are strikingly similar , Do you agree or disagree with the author ?
0.1071 What is analogous to the category of people that Gladwell identifies as Connectors begin to tip , or spread rapidly ? Discuss in detail.
0.1041 How many rules of epidemics that Gladwell identifies are : the Law of the Few , the Stickiness Factor , and the Power of Context ?
0.03125 Who play an inordinate role in helping new trends ? Also explain Why?
Jaccard Coefficient
0.00354
0.00568
0.00611
Jaccard Coefficient of Summary sentences
Jaccard Coefficient for Chapter
Added WHY questions detecting the 'because' phrase.
Transformed "DO" and "DOES" type of questions
Addition of question phrases in "WHAT" questions.
subjectivity score modified on the basis of the question tag.
Forming opinion based questions
(Hmelo-Silver et al., 2006)
The Stickiness Factor says that there are specific ways of making a contagious message memorable; there are relatively simple changes in the presentation and structuring of information that can make a big difference in how much of an impact it makes.

It's things like how sociable they are, or how energetic or knowledgeable or influential among their peers.

One of the most infamous incidents in New York City history, for example, was the 1964 stabbing death of a young Queens woman by the name of Kitty Genovese.
2. This role is analogous to the category of people that Gladwell identifies as “Connectors,” who play an inordinate role in helping new trends begin to “tip,” or spread rapidly.

4. The three “rules of epidemics” that Gladwell identifies are: the Law of the Few, the Stickiness Factor, and the Power of Context.

6. In most of these scenarios, whether the event in question is the spread of syphilis in Baltimore’s mean streets or the sudden spike in the popularity of Hush Puppies sales, there is a crucial juncture, which Gladwell terms the “tipping point,” that signals a key moment of crystallization that unifies isolated events into a significant trend.
Team 3 CSCL
Thank You.
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