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Human Resource Management - Chapter 4
Transcript of Human Resource Management - Chapter 4
What determines a profession? I mean... To be called a profession two requirements must be met... A profession must have a ...........
and a ............ Difficult question! I know... ;) What does C.S.R. stand for?
Is it Colonial Sanders Recipe? PPT - Chapter 4 Job Analysis, Strategic Planning, & Human Resource Planning HR as a Strategic Partner Succession Planning - The Case of the Runaway Talent ANSWERS TO CHAPTER 4 DAILY QUIZ 1.C 2.D 3.A 4.B 5.C 6.A 7.A 8.A 9.D 10.B http://qr.net/jyKK Job Description Ethical Choice: Recommend Tim Matherson, the person best qualified for the job.Factors Influencing Another Decision: If you recommend Robert Jones, he will be “out of your hair.” Besides, there will be a major void in your unit to deal with if you recommend Tim. By recommending Robert, your boss will certainly be pleased by how you took care of his nephew. There might even be a good raise for you in the future. ANSWERS TO CHAPTER 4 REVIEW QUESTIONS1.What is the distinction between a job and a position? Define job analysis. *Job: Group of tasks that must be performed if an organization is to achieve its goals.*Position: A collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person.*Job analysis: Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing specific jobs in an organization.2.Why is job analysis considered to be a basic human resource tool?Data derived from job analysis can have an impact on virtually every aspect of human resource management.3.When is job analysis performed?Job analysis is performed on three occasions. First, it is done when the organization is founded and a job analysis program is initiated for the first time. Second, it is performed when new jobs are created. Third, it is used when jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods, procedures, or systems. Job analysis is most often performed because of changes in the nature of jobs.4.What are the types of information required for job analysis?Considerable information is needed if job analysis is to be accomplished successfully. The job analyst identifies the actual duties and responsibilities associated with the job. Work activities and worker-oriented activities are quite important.In addition, knowledge of the types of machines, tools, equipment, and work aids that are used in performing the job are also important. This information is useful in later determining the skills needed to perform the job. In addition, the job analyst looks for job-related tangibles and intangibles. For instance, what knowledge is needed and must be applied, what materials are processed, or what products are made or services performed?Some job analysis systems identify the standards that are established for the job. Work measurement studies may need to be conducted to determine, for example, how long it takes for a task to be performed. With regard to job content, the analyst studies the work schedule, financial and nonfinancial incentives, and physical working conditions. Since jobs are often performed in conjunction with others, organizational and social contexts should also be noted. Also, specific education, training, and work experience pertinent to performing the job are identified. 5.What are the methods used to conduct job analysis? Describe each type.*Questionnaires: Job analyst administers a structured questionnaire to employees who then identify the tasks they perform in accomplishing the job.*Observation: Job analyst actually witnesses the work being performed and records his or her observations when the observation method is used.*Interview: Job analyst interviews both the employee and the supervisor.*Employee recording: Job analysis information may be gathered through the employees describing their daily work activities in a diary or log.*Combination: Combination of the above job analysis methods is often used.6.What are the basic components of a job description? Briefly describe each.*Job identification: Section includes a job title and a job number or code. A good title will closely approximate the nature of the work content and will distinguish that job from others.*Date of the job analysis: Job analysis date is placed on the job description to aid in identifying job changes that would make the description obsolete.*Job summary: Job summary provides the reader with a concise overview of the job. It is generally a short paragraph that states the job content.*Duties performed: Body of the job description delineates the major duties to be performed. Usually one sentence beginning with an action verb (such as receives, performs, establishes, or assembles) adequately explains each duty.7.Describe how effective job analysis can be used to satisfy each of the following statutes:*Fair Labor Standards Act: Employees are categorized as exempt or nonexempt, and job analysis is basic to this determination. Nonexempt workers must be paid time and a half when they work more than 40 hours per week. Overtime pay is not required for exempt employees.*Equal Pay Act: If jobs are not substantially different, similar pay must be provided. When pay differences exist, job descriptions can be used to show whether jobs are substantially equal in terms of skill, effort, responsibility, or working conditions. *Civil Rights Act: Job descriptions may provide the basis for adequate defenses against unfair discrimination charges in initial selection, promotion, and all other areas of human resource administration. When job analysis is not performed, defending certain qualifications established for the job is usually difficult. *Occupational Safety and Health Act: Job descriptions are required to specify elements of the job that endanger health, or are considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by the majority of the population.*Americans with Disabilities Act: Employers are required to make reasonable accommodations for workers with disabilities. The EEOC defines a reasonable accommodation as any modification or adjustment to a job, an employment practice, or the work environment that makes it possible for an individual with a disability to enjoy an equal employment opportunity. 8.What are the steps involved in the strategic planning process?Strategic planning at all levels of the organization can be divided into four steps: (1) determination of the organizational mission; (2) assessment of the organization and its environment; (3) setting of specific objectives or direction; and (4) determination of strategies to accomplish those objectives.9.What are the steps involved in the human resource planning process?After strategic plans have been formulated, human resource planning can be undertaken. Organizational plans identified in the strategic planning process are reduced to specific quantitative and qualitative human resource plans. Human resource planning has two components: requirements and availability. Forecasting human resource requirements involves determining the number and type of employees needed, by skill level and location. These projections will be affected by various factors, such as production plans and changes in efficiency levels. In order to forecast the availability of human resources, the organization looks to both internal sources (presently employed employees) and external sources (the labor market). When the requirements and availability of employees have been analyzed, the firm is in a position to determine whether there will be a surplus or shortage of employees. Ways must be found to reduce the number of employees if a surplus of workers is projected. Some of these methods include restricted hiring, reduced hours, early retirements, and layoffs. If a shortage is forecast, the firm must look to sources outside the organization to secure the proper quantity and quality of workers. External recruitment and selection is then required.10.What are the human resource forecasting techniques?*Zero-base forecasting: Forecasting method that uses the organization’s current level of employment as the starting point for determining future staffing needs.*Bottom-up approach: Forecasting method in which each successive level in the organization, starting with the lowest, forecasts its requirements, ultimately providing an aggregate forecast of employees needed.*Simulation models: Forecasting technique for experimenting with a real-world situation through a mathematical model.