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Transcript of Jazz Music
Be Bops main inventors were Dizzy Gilespe and Charlie Parker and was made famous during the 1940's. Bebop artists took a new spin on improvisation and created and used
. It was also incoperating alot of chromatic scales and notes that made it extremely different form all the jazz music before it. The drumming was usually super complex and hard to keep up with.
What is so special about Jazz Music and why is it different than other genres?
Jazz was created by
people and the product of their struggles and experiences was jazz and blues music. This was their way of expressing themselves. For years Jazz was looked upon as a type of music that people who were so close to poor they were almost considered slaves, listened to. It was not seen as classy and it was seen as something that lower class people listened to. One thing that many other genres do not encorprate as much as Jazz is the art of improvisation. Jazz is known for its famous 'doo whops' and scatting which make it more exciting to sing and play.
is a way of expressing oneself through making different sounds at a faster pace, while keeping in time with the music. It also shows that jazz musicians put all their soul into their music by expressing themselves through this quality. Another fantastic reason Jazz is a great type of music is because you can incorperate so many different types of instruments into the music. For example, you can have a guitar (bass or normal),
, trumpet, trombone, singer, and
. They can also take a turn each playing a solo or improvising!
Aesthetics, Characteristics and Properties
1. Swing and Syncopation
What are these? A Syncopation is an unexpected beat on the off beat. Ex. You clap on 2 instead of 3. So its not on the regular beat. However, some people say swing is unlike syncopation in the way that you can feel swing in the core of your being. An example of swing is when Lisa Martinelli made us bend over and swing back and forth in order to 'feel' the music.
An extremley famous improviser is the famous trumpet player Louis Armstrong. Improvisation of a rhythm is basically rearranging the main rhythm to express a different way of singing it. For example, you can have eight notes instead of constant quarter notes
Dixieland and Hot Jazz
Dixieland became famous in the early 1900's and originated in New Orleans. Dixieland was very famous during the Confederate War and many instruments such as banjos, saxophone, bass guitar and drums have been salvaged from that time period. This type of music encorperated solo's and group numbers. They used alot of improvisation and incorperated ragtime qualities as well.
Hot Jazz is called that because they play the music leading up to the 'Hot' catchy climax of the song. The rhythm section consisted of alot of drums, bass guitar and banjo or guitar. The rhythm part of this section was usually in a marching manor. One of the most famous Hot Jazz players of all time is Louis Armstrong. During this time the recording was becoming more advanced so, Hot Jazz was being able to be recorded more and more.
Swing music was extremley popular in the 1930's. Swing was the type of Jazz that brought forth the idea of Big Band Music. BIg Band's had around 10 or more musicians in their group. They have many instruments including four saxophones, a large percussion section, piano, guitar and bass guitar.
Swing offers a large area for improvisation and the solo's began to become alot more complex during this time period. Swing was a very vigorous and exciting style of Jazz. Swing also dervied and was influenced by New Orleans style of Jazz. During the time of Swing music, New York became the new center of the Music World. Alot more recording companies and many music business's started opening up in New York which was a great opportunity for up and coming artists. One artist that was extremley popular in the swing world was Duke Ellginton.
Jazz has been around since the 1800's. It started off in the Southern United States and originally stemed from the Blues. However, what people really recognize is the birth place of Jazz which is
. New Orleans was the only place that slaves were allowed to own a drum. They took the church music and trumpets they hear in the street and encorperated that into their music. They put everything together and created like a whole new style of music.
" Bolden is known as the father of Jazz music. After playing in numerous bands in the mid 1890's Buddy created his own band called 'The Buddy Bolden Band" which encorperated the different sounds of the cornet, guitar, trombone, bass, two clarinets and drums. He took part in the
type of Jazz. (Creole is a type of Jazz that encorperates 5 instruments and it was made famous in New Orleans.) He became more famous and he only had two interests, Alcohol and Women. His condition became worse and he started to go crazy. He was eventually sent to an insane asylum and was confined there for 25 years. He later died and there are no recordings of him saved today.
How Did It Start?
King Oliver's Jazz Band , which is a famous Creole Band.
Ragtime's roots can be found in African influenced rhythms. These rhythms were used in Jig Bands and Cakewalks. Cakewalks werea type of dance that people did in the late 1890's. Ragtime is said to have started close to 1895. For the time the music was very vibrant and exciting. The most influenctial Ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. Joplin was born into a musical family in Texas. Noone knows when he eas exactly born because there are barely any records for that time. His first big hit was 'Maple Leaf Rag'. The Maple Leaf Rag went on to become the mot famous Ragtime song of all time. Scott Joplin is also responsible for writing the world famous song 'The Entertainer"
Original DixieLand Band
Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five
Cool Jazz and Hard Bop
Cool Jazz started after the Bop era of the 1940's. This time instead of having harsh and exciting dynamics, they were slowed down and cooled out. This type of music was nicknamed 'West Coast Jazz' because alot of the ideas for this type of Jazz were stemming out of Los Angeles. Cool Jazz had any size band. It could go from a trio to having at least 10 people into the band. The reason they had so many people compared to the other types of Jazz was because they had alot more instruments. Classical instruments such as flutes and tubas were being used. Considering they had so many instruments it was difficult for every one to have solos. This is when they started writing out their Cool Jazz music ahead of time.
An example of a Cool Jazz Trumpeter is Chet Baker.
Hard Bop is somewhat of an extension of Cool Jazz. Many musicians thought that with Cool Jazz, the sound had become way too classical for their liking. So, Hard Bop became more Afro-centric and blues based. They started to turn back to their roots of the music. There were two mains parts of Hard Bop. One was, Funky Jazz which had simple melodies, and was heavily influenced by Gospel and Blues music. The second was, Mainstream Jazz. Mainstream started to add the complexities of Bebop back into its style of music but they also took time to arrange their music in advance as well. A famous trumpeter from the Hard Bop era is Dave Burbeck.
Chet Baker- Almost Blue
Dave Burbeck- Take Five
Bossa Nova Jazz
Bossa Nova is also known as Brazilian Jazz. It encorperates different Latin rhythms and some west Coast Cool Jazz in its sound. This type of Jazz reached the United States in the early 60's. The vocals are very hypnotic and are either sung in English or Portugese.
Ella Fitzgerald, also known as 'Lady Ella' had a very troubled childhood, with her parents seperation when she was a kid
She was discovered at the Apollo Theatre when she was 17 years old.
Her first recorded song was " Love Kisses" and she recorded her first #1 hit "A tisket a tasket" in 1938. She also started recording with the Benny Goodman Orchestra.
She had a brief marriage to Ben Kornegay a drug dealer and hustler.
Her first record deal was with Decca Records and made a film debut in 'Ride Em Cowboy' a western movie.
She eventually hired Norman Granz as her manager after her career started to take off after working with him. While working with Granz, she went on tour with Dizzy Gilespe and his famous band. This helped brodden her singing style when she started to introduce scatting into it.
In 1956, Ella started to work with a new record company called Verve records which was founded by Norman Granz. She recorded the Cole Porter songbook, Duke Ellington song book and Irving Berlin song book while at Verve.
In 1958, the year of the first Grammy awards, Ella walked out with two awards. She was the first African-American woman to win a Grammy award. She won best individual jazz performance and best female vocal performance for two song books.
She sang with many famous artists during her career such as Frank Sinatra and Louis Armstrong. She was known for her almost instrumental sounding improvisations,s o everyone wanted to work with Ella.
In the late 70's and 80's Ella was still performing and putting on small shows. Her last public performance was at Carnegie Hall in 1991. In 1995 she passed away. She had suffered from diabetes in the late 80's and had both her legs amputated and had gone blind.
Over her career Ella had 13 Grammy's, 200 albums and close to 2000 songs recorded. Her overall records sales exceeded 40 million.
Louis Armstrong was born on August 4th 1901 in New Orleans
He was very poor and when his father left his family his mother had to resort to prostituition in order to keep the family a float. He began to then sing in the street after dropping out of school in order to earn money.
He once fired a shot gun in the air during a festival and was arrested and taken to an all boys home. There he learned alot about music and learned how to play the cornet (a small trumpet).
He found his mentor in New Orleans and his name was King Oliver and by 1910 Armstrong had become a popular musician in New Orleans. After joining Oliver's Creole band Armstrong gained a huge following.
However, during the Great Depression, Armstrong's career suffered a major setback. Alot of the clubs started to shut down and he started to lose money. This influenced his desicion to move to Los Angeles.
After moving to LA he played at the 'New Cotton Club'. After staying in LA he moved back to Chicago. He then started to travel more to places such as Denmark and France at the height of his career.
He appeared in several films and one in particular named 'Pennies from heaven' with Bing Crosby.
After his film career he realed many hits such as "Blueberry Hill' and 'Le Vie En Rose'.
After these hits came out, his fame skyrocketed like never before and he was then selling out shows in Asia, Europe and Africa.
However his most famous piece of music to date and his best known worldwide is 'What a WOnderful World' it hit #1 in several different countries around the world, especially in Europe.
Eventually, his high profile lifestyle started to take a toll on his body. He was doing up to 300 shows a year. Finally, on July 6th 1971 he died in his sleep in his house in Queens New York.
Charlie was born on August 29th 1920 in Kansas City. He was greatly influecned by gospel music and blues music.
He discovered his talents when attending school, where he played the baritone saxophone. He eventually turned to playing the saxophone when in highschool and started playing at local clubs.
He dropped out of school and eventually toured with Jay McShann's band around Chicago and New York. It was with this band that he made his first recording. On new recordings after, he was given many chances to start soloing on recordings.
In 1942 Parker met Dizzy Gilesepe and Thelonious Monk. However, it wasn't until 1945 when Parker was leading his own band that he started to actually play with Dizzy Gilesepe.
They began on a six month night club tour and eventually created a whole new form of jazz called Bebop.
There was a specific time when Igor Stravinsky and Charlie were at the same event. Charlie was playing and he was able to encoperate one of Igor Stravinsky's songs 'Firebird Street' into one of his songs. Stravinsky was so delighted he slammed his glass onto the table and was vry moved by Parkers gesture.
Parker had battled alcoholism, heroin addiction and mental illness for his whole life. Considering he had battled it for so long, he contracted pneumonia. Then, on March 12, 1955 he passed away in New York.
Art During The Great Depression
During the Great Depression the music was still Jazz. However, considering times were tough all they had was music and art. The art however, was very dull and many pictures told a story. (Like the one on the right)
Reuben was a painter during the Great Depression and WW2. His paintings changed as the years went by he went from just Renessaince painting to Mural Paintings.