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Transcript of History~Feudal Japan
Charlie W. Ancient Japan Origins Education, Intellectual life, Literature Economics After 200 BCE Foods Japan was isolated = not many foreign styles.
Ancient Japanese art: pottery, sculpture, ink painting, watercolors, and more.
Painting is most popular.
Ancient Japanese writing done with a brush rather than pens = very familiar with painting techniques.
Earliest traces of complex art: 7th - 8th centuries A.D. Much of it influenced by Buddhism.
9th century: gave rise to secular art.
Both secular and religious art from then on. Art and Architecture •Buddhist monasteries
•Monk Saiko created first 12-year curriculum.
•First commoner school in 828, but short-lived.
•Schools emphasized religious beliefs. Primarily for the elite class until the sixteenth century. Geography Political and Military History Religion Social structure, Family, Women Science and Technology 3-D Object Before 200 BCE Hunter-gatherers
Raw or cooked Fish
Plants + Berries
Very healthy Noodles
Hunted and fished Collection of Islands Honshu - North
Hokkaido - Rolling Hills
Kyushu - Volcanoes, rugged, south
Shikoku - Farming regions, woodlands, bodies of water, >Ishikari = plain and river Frequent earthquakes, which cause tsunamies North - cold and breezy, lot's of
snow in the winter Winter - Mild
Summer - hot and humid,
rainy season = early summer
typhoons = late summer Over 50% is forest and mountains South
Tea, citrus, Fishing Traditional Samurai outfit and Yukata -Samurai had their heyday in the Muromachi Period -Katanas -Seppuku (suicide) -Male/Female -Geta (footwear) Uses: -Bathrobe
-At Ryokans -Worn on left side -Bushido -Tabi (footwear) ~ After Ice Age, Japanese settled on their isolated land.
~ Japanese settlers joined with other peoples.
~ They blended together to form a distinct culture : the Jomon. (ended in 300 BCE)
- Stable living patterns began.
- Jomon people led a sedentary / semi-sedentary lifestyle.
- Skilled fisherman who lived in caves and shallow pit dwellings. THE JOMON PERIOD (10,000 to 300 BCE) Early Jomon: 5,000 B.C. - 2,500 B.C. Warming period: Practice of agriculture spread around the world.
Jomon began living a more sedentary lifestyle. Middle Jomon: 2,500 B.C. - 1,500 B.C. Jomon began practicing simple forms of agriculture.
Jomon began migrating out of Kanto into the more mountainous areas of Japan. Late Jomon: 1,500 B.C. - 1,000 B.C. Temperature cooler, rainfall increase.
Jomon migrated out of mountainous areas and back to Honshu. Each clan of early Japan (called uji's) worshiped a particular kami (divine being) as their ancestor. However, all clans worshiped the Sun Goddess as the greatest of all deities.
This worship combined all early Japanese religions into a native religion: the Shinto. “Way of the Deities”
Blend of: animism, shamanism, fertility rites, nature worship.
Kami were deities – NOT GODS, but great objects or personalities .
They were responsible for good/bad fortune.
Sun Goddess = greatest of the kami.
Pre-moral religion At death, EVERYONE went to yomi: a dark underworld.
Shinto encouraged happiness, but promised no happiness after death.
When Buddhism came to Japan and offered salvation in the afterlife, Japanese rapidly made many converts. Ritual of Shichi-go-san: Children must visit a shrine at the ages of 3, 5 and 7 to anchor soul inside them (keeps them alive). Zen Buddhism
Self-discipline is key. Emotion is source of all action. Meditation and tranquility. SHINTO Cult of Beauty HEIAN PERIOD (794 – 1885) Ability to appreciate beauty considered divine
Religious sites grew more elaborate DEATH AND AFTERLIFE 3 Schools of Buddhism Kamakura Shogunate Period (1185 – 1333) Pure Land
Individual achieves enlightenment by faith alone. Nichiren
Founded by a monk.
Salvation was achieved thanks to Lotus Scripture. "Only true form of Buddhism" ART ARCHITECHTURE The Japanese had a unique sense of using natural materials.
They had advanced spatial sense.
Japanese brought art of woodworking to great heights. Artwork, temples, private homes made with local wood. NARA (710 - 794 CE) Earliest Buddha sculptures.
Development of iconography of the Japanese deities. When oldest wooden buildings (in the Far East) were built.
The Kondo (Golden Hall)
Goju-no-to (Five-story Pagoda) Art Architechture HEIAN (794 - 1185 CE) Architechture Japanese Buddhist architecture adopted the stupa in its pagoda.
Temples erected for new sects built in the mountains:
Cypress-bark roofs instead of ceramic tile.
Wood planks for walls and floor. Kamakura & Muromachi (1185 - 1573 CE) Art Architechture Realism and a classical revival characterize art of this period.
Japanese artists were influenced by secular ventures to/trading with China.
This changed the subject matter of painting AND use of colour:
Bright colours replaced by monochromes. Ostentatious architecture (lacquer and gold leaf) replaced simple, practical structures. 4 Seasons North (Hokkaido)
apples, Weather South - tropical -Samurai Women
-Women as Warriors
-Women as Geisha Samurai! -Bushi (Art of Bushido) -12th century onward = dominated! -Seppuku (Ritual Suicide) Heian Japan: Cons
~Restriction of mobility caused by hair and clothing
~Could only be seen by certain men
~No physical abuse
~Politics and estates Women! Family! Shichigo-san ritual
-Visits to the a Shrine at the age of three, five and seven Social Structure of the Ashikaga shogunate Warriors Merchants Artisans Farmers Samurai:
-Suicide and fighting method differed from that of men
-Obeyed the whim of the Samurai men (less freedom)
-Artists (Poets and Novelists)
-One escape in Buddhism as nuns Sengoku period = Women officially inferior to men Peasants:
-More freedom than samurai women
-Short hair work with men
-Control over finances Warriors:
-All classes included
-Last defenses for their homes
-Sengoku Period = safety taken into their own hands
-Jujitsu; Naginata; Katana Geisha:
-Maiko = apprentice geisha
-When Maiko becomes Geisha = no makeup/hairpins
-Sengoku period sucked for Geishas
-Tools used by Daimyos
-No marriage Yamato period = warlike people Early Japan = Aristocratic society Each region = dominated by an Uji Sun-line of Japan = one of these Ujis Individual clan loyalties = strong New religion in Japan threw ruling class into turmoil Taika "Great Change"
First modern constitution = 1889 People -Prince Shotoku (574-622)
-Constitution of 17 Articles
-Power struggle followed his death
-Regent for Empress Suiko Empress Koken
-758 abdication (Buddhist monk)
-764 re declared as empress (as Shotoku) Fujiwara Clan
-Second only to the Sun-line
-3 century long domination Foundation of Kamakura shogunate comes from war over attempt of 2 year old emperor.
-Victor: Minamoto Yorimoto Kuge = aristocratocracy Foundation of Kamakura shogunate comes from war over attempt of 2 year old emperor.
-Victor: Minamoto Yoritomo Tent government = Bakufu = Shogunate Mongols: -1274, Khubilai sends 450 korean ships to Kyushu
-Invasion was aborted and result inconclusive
-War began summer 1281, all seemed hopeless
-August 1281, Giant typhoon = Kamikaze "divine wind" -Obeyed their Lord Split peach -Women Samurai = Pawns, Hostages, or spies Both genders were indulged Class Structure of Ashikaga chogunate = four ranked groups The Tatara System:
-Producing Steel from Iron Sand Japanese Swords:
-Katana & Wakizashi Other Weapons:
-Yumi & Kaiken -Obi Paddy Field Poetry Uta - Song or Poem Waka
- Short poems.
- Rhetorical poems reflecting mood and ambiance Recreation Theater Noh: Poems, classic stories, comedy Bunraku: Puppet Theater
3-4 ft tall, manipulated by puppeteers dressed in black onstage. Kabuki: Combines music, dance and drama. Forestry Cities Nara - (710-784) Is known for its many temples and shrines that remain to this day Was an ancient and powerful Capital Kyoto - (794-1869) Was the capital and home of the court from 794 - 1869 when it was moved to Tokyo During Samurai faction battles, the city was destroyed on countless occasion and never fully was recovered until the 16th Century. Japanese Literature Classical Literature
(794 - 1185) Medieval Literature
(1185 - 1603) Ancient Literature ( - 794) - No writing until Kanji (47CE) arrived from China on coins, seals...
>Urashima Taro (Time Travel Waka poetry becomes very popular
Taketori Monogatari (Science Fiction)
Monogatarishu (+ 1000 tales in 31 Volumes) Development of war tales occurs due to many civil wars.
The Tale of Heike (1371)
Renga (linked verse) and Noh (comedy/theater) becomes very popular. Metals copper and silver
Currency gold, silver and copper coins