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The tundra

biology project

Mikailah Ostoyic

on 4 February 2012

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Transcript of The tundra

The Tundra By: Mikailah Ostoyic Secondary consumers Primary Consumer Tertiary consumers Producers !0% energy passed 90% lost as heat Locations:
Arctic Tundra This tundra is located in
North Pole
(also) northern parts of Canada, Alaska,Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Russia, and the United States.
It is located in the Nothern Hemisphere of the earth to be more exact.
Alphine Tundra Located at:
Bin Colorado, Rocky Mountain National Park near Estes Park in Colorado, Obstruction Point in Olympic National Park in Washington, Mount Washington in White Mountain National Forest in New Hampshire, Humphrey's Peak which is part of the San Francisco Peaks in Arizona, Mount Katahdin in Maine, Little Diomede Island of the United States, and Big Diomede Island of the Soviet Union. ering Land Bridge National Preserve, Baffin Island in North Eastern Canada, Northern Scandinavia and Northern regions of Russia and Siberia, Colorado Mountain and Pikes Peak
This biome is one
of the biggest
biomes by taking
almost 10% of the
earth's surface. -Rarely gets to 10 degrees Celsius -In the summer, the sun almost shines 24hours each day. - The season, summer, only last 6-10 weeks and the temperature never goes past 50 degrees F, but it can reach into the 40s. The latitudinal range is 75° N to 60° N. - On average in this season it is 50 degrees F. -In winter, it barely ever goes over 20 degrees F.
The average temperature, in winter, is -20 to -30 F. The whole day is parctically dark.(very windy during this season) Water Availability: The precipitation ranges from 6- 10 inches a year (around 30 cm on average). With the little evaporation and the permafrost, the place seems quite wet even though it is close to being as dry as the desert biome. The availablility of water is a little bit more plentyful that it seems. The biome is surrounded by snow, frozen water particles, so an animal such as the caribou could be digging up the snow for food and will nibble at some of the ice for water. Soil Type: The soil type in the Tundra
is very soggy. Since there
is permafrost, on the top
levels of the soil, it stops
plants from getting their
roots very deep in the soil.
So, the water doesn't get
absorbed. There is no drainage
and little evaporation in the
biome, so all the water is
frozen in the ground from the
freezing temperatures. Common Organisms Animals/ consumers Arctic fox
Genus: Lagopus
Species: alopex

Genus: Rangifer
Species: tarandus
Genus: Mustela
Species: erminea
Grizzly Bear
Genus: Ursus
Species: arctos horribilis

Harlequin duck
Genus: Histrionicus
Species: histrionicus

Musk Ox
Common Name: Oomingmak
Genus: Ovibos
Species: moschatus

Polar Bear
Genus: Ursus
Species: maritimus
Snowy Owl
Genus: Nyctea
Species: scandiaca
Arctic Hare
Genus: Lepus
Species: arcticus Rock Ptarmigan
Genus: La gopus
Arctic Wolf
Genus: Canis
Species: Canis lupus
Plants/ producers Arctic Moss
Genus: Calliergon
Species: giganteum

Arctic Willow
Genus: Salix
Species: arctica
Genus: Arctostaphylos
Species: uva-ursi
Parts used:
Caribou Moss
Genus: Cladonia
Species: rangiferina Diamond- leaf willow, Sura
Genus: Salix
Species: pulcha
Labrador Tea
Genus: Ledum
Species: groenlandicum Pasque Flower
Genus: Anemone
Species: patens

Tufted Saxifrage
Genus: Saxifraga
Species: caespitosa

Videos: musk ox and wolves Limiting Factors: is where there are factors that effect the population of each species in an ecosystem.

Food~ There is a limited amount of food in the tundra, because most autotrophs struggle to survive with little sunlight and over bearing soggy soil. The producers provide the only source of energy for primary consumers like the caribou, which feeds the top consumers. 10% of the energy is passed from each producer to consumers, so the top consumers have a much smaller population and have to eat constantly to survive each day.
Predation~ In the tundra, heterotrophs eat other organisms to sustain things like homostasis and reproduction. The arctic wolf is an example, because they eat primary consumers like the musk ox. Even though it increases the chance of a new generation of wolves it decreases the chances for the ox's generations to come.
Temperature~ With the tundra's freezing temperatures and winds most of the animals that survive there have adaptations to protect themselves from the harsh weather. Being around -50 degrees F, animals can freeze to death, this is especially includes the young for all species. Some do die because of it and it decreases populations.So, this does limit what can thrive there. Its summers on get to a high of 54 degrees F.
Water~ There is as little as 6 inches- 10 inches of rain (preciptitation) a year in the tundra, but most of the landscape is covered with its frozen version, snow/ice. Permafrost prevents the water from being absorb into the soil or ground. This provides a great amount of water for producers. It does, however for the consumers, take much more energy to dig up pieces of ice to lick and munch on. When the seasons spring and summer come though, many steams and lakes are formed. With the water source being some what abundant, this can increase chances for survival. So, this water availability can either increase or decrease the population in certain ways.

Sunlight~ The tundra biome has a different type of night and day due to the fact it is so close to the earth's poles. In the short summer it is almost always light out (24hrs a day) so, the autotrophs can produce flowers and energy for herbivores and omnivores. Then in winter it is complete darkness so, the photosynthesis cycle of the producers nearly come to a complete stop and during this time food is very limited.
The arctic hare lives in the harsh environment of the North American tundra. These hares do not hibernate, but survive the dangerous cold with a number of behavioral and physiological adaptations. They sport thick fur and enjoy a low surface area to volume ratio that conserves body heat, most evident in their shortened ears. These hares sometimes dig shelters in snow and huddle together to share warmth.

Hares are a bit larger than rabbits, and they typically have taller hind legs and longer ears. Like other hares and rabbits, Arctic hares are fast and can bound at speeds of up to 40 miles (60 kilometers) an hour. In winter, they sport a brilliant white coat that provides excellent camouflage in the land of ice and snow. In spring, the hare's colors change to blue-gray in approximation of local rocks and vegetation.

Arctic hares are sometimes loners but they can also be found in groups of dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of individuals. Unlike many mammals, arctic hare groups disperse rather than form during mating season. Animals pair off and define mating territories, though a male may take more than one female partner.

Females give birth to one litter per year, in spring or early summer. Two to eight young hares grow quickly and by September resemble their parents. They will be ready to breed the following year.

Food can be scarce in the Arctic, but the hares survive by eating woody plants, mosses, and lichens which they may dig through the snow to find in winter. In other seasons they eat buds, berries, leaves, roots, and bark.
Ideas Big and.... ... small Reproductive Adaptations Arctic Hare Physical Behavorial The arctic hare does not hibernate. To survive they have specific physical adaptations to protect them from the harsh enviroment. They have thick fur to insulate heat. Their short ears allow them be able to run quicker when in a chase and also to be able to go flat against their head to stay closer to the ground. Arctic hares are different from rabbits by their longer hind legs. Hares are very quick and can leap at a pace up to 40 miles (60 kilometers) per hour.
When it comes to camoflage they are experts. In winter, their fur is white to blend in with the snow. Then ,when the seasons change to spring and summer, their fur changes to gray-like color to match the scenery of the rocks and foliage (greenary). Niche: Primary Consumer
Heterotroph During the mating season, arctic hares pair up and find a congenial place to breed. To increase the chances of one's genes, males will often mate with more than one female. Another ensurance of the next generation, even though the female only gives birth once a year, the female is able to carry up to eight young and give birth to them. The young will be born around the spring season and will be mature enough to breed around the fall season of next year. This increases the population greatly. Arcitic hare dig burrows in the snow and group together to stay warm. Although they can be by themselves, they are often found in bunches that can be up to a couple thousands hares. In the mating season, they actually scatter from their collective group (in pairs).
To survive they usually eat wood-like plants, mosses, and lichens. ( that can be found under the snow). When it is spring, they consume berries, leaves, roots, buds, and bark. Grizzly Bear Niche:Top consumer
Physical Reproductive Behavioral Grizzly bears have a thick coat and layers of fat to insulate warmth. They then shed it during the summer so they do not over heat. To catch prey they have large, thick claws. It helps them when they are trying to get some fish in a rushing river or to provide food for its young. When it
comes to providing food for themselves, they use their sense of smell due
to the fact that they lack in eye sight. Grizzly bears prepare dens, where often the mother will
give birth to her young, for shelter from the winter weather.
The female on average has one to two cubs, but can have up
to four. It cares for the young for two to three years to teach
them survival skills they will use later on (when they can defend
themselves). Once they have reached maturity, they leave the mother
to breed and carry on the parent's genes.
This cycle ensures that the population will continue to increase. Before the winter season begins, Grizzly bears make a bed that consist of leave and sticks in their den. They do not quite hibernate, for they come out once in a while. They also do not hunt because they use their stored body fat until the season spring approaches.
To make such an energy source they eat up to 90 pounds of food each day in the seasons of summer and fall. The bears have a diet that is made up of 75% vegetation. The other 25% is created by insects, honey, and rodents. Occasionally they will eat kills that were left by another predator or the bear scares them off, even though they are strong enough to hunt on their own. Grizzlies are usually alone because they have only a small amount of competition in survival, so they are counted a top predator. Arctic Moss The arctic moss (Calliergon giganteum)
is a plant that grows in the beds of lakes in the tundra. It is a bryophyte, where it replaces roost with rhizoids because of the permafrost. The moisture is captured more towards the top of the soil. so this plant does not need to grow roots that will go deep into the
ground. They have leaves that are very small, about the size of one cell, because they get little nutrients from the limited amount of sunlight. Since they do not produce flowers
, the moss grow shoots or disperse spores,that need to have moisture in order to live, to reproduce. Physical Reproductive Physical Reproductive The Arctic Willow Their roots are shallow
because of the permafrost.
It does not need thick roots
because of the moisture that is
captured in the top soil.
In its season of growth, the
plant creates a pesticide to repel
insects. Their leaves have
long hair to insulate heat.
The willow grows spikes
on its flower's petals to
protect the seed. The
flowers are unisexual
and produce only seeds,
no fruit, so no animal consumes
its seeds and stops the
reproduction process. There is also lichnes, grass, and liverworts. There are decomposers like bacteria and fungi. Arctic moss, bearberry, caribou moss, arctic willow, diamond-leaf willow, labrador tea, pasque flower, tufted saxifrage, linchens, grass, and liverworts Caribou, harlequin duck, musk ox, and arctic hare, and rock ptarmigan Ermine and arctic fox Grizzly bear, snowy owl, polar bear and arctic wolf Energy Pyramid arctic moss bearberry caribou moss arctic willow diamond -leaf willow Plants not consumed: Pasque flower,
Tufted Saxifrage, and Labrador Tea linchens Grass liverworts Harlequin duck musk ox arctic hare Caribou Arctic fox Ermine Grizzly Bear Polar Bear Rock Ptarmigan Snowy owl arctic wolf Food Web Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism { Fungi and bacteria Predator-Prey Producer- Consumer competition Intraspecific Interspecific Two male polar bears fighting for
a female
two polar bears over a kill Hare eating linchens
caribou eating caribou
To stay alive!!!! Factors ~Biotic~
bacteria (protist)
*competition: interspecific
& intraspecific, mutualism,
amensalism, and
predation/ parasitism* ~Abiotic~ gravity
natural disasters
*climate, weather,
and soils (mineral/ component) http://library.thinkquest.org/C0113340/main.php?section=biomes&topic=tundra&subtopic=location
References: Arctic owl eating
an arctic hare
Arctic wolf consumes musk ox to sustain life
Density Independant: Temperature
,sunlight, and water Density Dependant:
Food (live animals) &predation Reindeer have microorganisms
located in the stomach.
They take the food consumed,
use it for energy, and then
transfor it so it can be used by the reindeer.
Lichen plants are made of fungi
that protect the algae cells. In return t
he algae cells provide sugar and
oxygen for the fungus.
The arctic fox follows the caribou often, when it is searching for food. After the caribou have dug through the snow to get to the lichen plants and ate, the arctic fox goes to the hole and get small mammals to eat. It is easier since they are closer to the surface and the fox does not have to dig up so uch snow. Ticks living on caribou, wolves,
arctic fox, and musk oxen and
drinking their blood and breed on their skin.
Tape worms living in carbou and plastic
worms living in wolves (in their intestines.
They steal nutrients from the host.
Mosquitoes and flies drinking blood
from mammals like caribou.

Human Impact Problems Solutions People have been over hunting the tundra
and causing some species to become
endangered. If a certain species decreases
too quickly, then the ecosystems will be
unbalanced and crash. Pollution created by industries, which creates
"global warming", is causing the tundra to
melt and territory to decrease. Groups of people, enviromentalist and others, are
trying to get a law passed to protect the animals in the tundra. Around the world people are trying to stop pollution.
This has had some effect by making some industries go eco-friendly. Oil companies are trying to get minerals and oil from the tundra.
This is affecting the migration of mammmals like the caribou. Due to global warming, grizzly bears and polarbears
are beginning to collide. They are starting to fight over the shrinking territory in order to survive and
sometimes they mate together by accident because their habitats are getting closer to each other. Niche: Producer
Autotroph Niche: Autotroph
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