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Copy of COM10003 Learning and Communicating Online Team 3
Transcript of Copy of COM10003 Learning and Communicating Online Team 3
Cognitive knowledge is the building block of our mind and thought processes. What we do with this knowledge will decide whether it is retained in our short or long term memory.
Halls (2004) identifies how our brain processes information in three stages. They are:
short-term or working memory
It is this long-term memory developed through a metacognitive process that is of most interest to us.
‘Thinking about our thinking’ expands on the cognitive knowledge. Flavell states that “Cognitive strategies are invoked to make cognitive progress, metacognitive strategies to monitor it.” (Flavell 1979, p. 909). It is this reflection on the cognitive knowledge, (the evaluation of one’s understanding) that make the distinction between the cognitive and metacognitive strategies.
Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating are the metacognitive strategies that we need to employ to develop a deeper level of understanding of our topics within our academic environment.
Cognitive learning theories are but one of the many theories that we need to be conscious of in order to succeed within an online learning community. The ability to form understandings, learn and interact in our world are honed through our development in these theories.
Downes (2005) identifies connective learning to possess
four key traits
the wide array of perspectives or points of views provided
the information source and its/their intention to report out of their own will, or the portrayal of information through an external source
Interaction between participants forms knowledge as opposed to perspectives
Ability for participants to be heard an interacted with
“Experience has long been considered the best teacher of knowledge. Since we cannot experience everything, other people’s experiences, and hence other people, become the surrogate for knowledge.’’ (Stephenson, n.d.)
Concrete-operational stge (seven to eleven) children learn to organise their knowledge, classify objects and do thought problems through language development.
Formal-operational (after age eleven to around fifteen) the peak of logical thought, whilst children are developing their language, they begin to reason realistically about the future.
“At a very simple level, cognition refers to the process of thinking. Webster’s defines it as the activities of thinking, understanding, learning, and remembering.” (Halls, 2004)
Video – Constructivism iMovie FINAL Nov 14, date viewed 10/9/15
Constructivism in Piaget and Vygotsky, Dec 2004, date viewed 3/9/15
Swinburne Online Week 2, How we Learn – We’re all in this together
According to Siemens and Downes (2009), Connectivism is a learning theory which transitions the way we learn into the digital age.
Through modern technology, and online facilities such as blogs, forums, social media, and emails to name a few, learners are now more than ever, able to easily connect and communicate with others to gain knowledge and an alternate understanding of certain topics.
Online learning is a great example of the Connectivism learning theory in today’s society. The ability to independently study and communicate with other students from a wide range of experiences, and backgrounds enables individuals to gain further understanding as well as share insightful information.
Connectivism learning is inevitably on the rise with users now starting from a very young age. Furthermore, the ease of access to online interactions and groups, as well as the increase in the amount of time users spend researching and communicating online, validates this theory of learning.
Connectivism (Siemens, G., Downes, S.) 2009, learning-theories.com, viewed 22 August 2015 <www.learning-theories.com/connectivism-siemens-downes.html>
Stephenson, K., (Internal Communication, no. 36) n.d., What Knowledge Tears Apart, Networks Make Whole. Viewed 24 August 2015 <www.netform.com/html/icf.pdf>
Connectivism (Duke, B., Harper, G., Johnston, M.) 2013, The International HETL Review, Special Issue, 2013 (page 5) viewed 24 August 2015 <www.hetl.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/HETLReview2013SpecialIssueArticle1.pdf>
Connectivism; A Learning theory for the Digital Age (Siemens, S.) 2005, International Journal of Institutional Technology and Distance Learning. Viewed 24/08/15 <www.itdl.org/journal/jan_05/article01.htm>
Dr George Siemens Overview of Connectivism, 2014, viewed 22 August 2015 <www.youtube.com/watch?v=yx5VHpaW8sQ >
Similarly to the Constructivism theory, learning is enabled through social groups where knowledge and experiences, as well as the ‘diversity of opinions’ (Siemens, 2004) are shared.
Image 2: Connectivism
Image 1: Connectivism
Essentially, there are a number of learning theories which individuals encompass at each stage of their lives.
The learning theory of Transmissionists explores the idea of learners taking on board information passed on from the educator. This can be clearly seen during the early stages of learning through early childhood and primary school education.
Cognitive learning then takes us through the ‘process of thinking’ (Halls, 2004), whilst Metacognition defines how we plan, monitor and evaluate our thinking.
According to Piaget, Constructivism is the theory of being able to construct knowledge that is meaningful to the learner. Influences of this theory include learning from others, and interacting with the people around us.
Finally, Connectivism is the learning theory which explores the transition of learning into the digital age. (Siemens and Downes, 2009). The ability to learn and interact with others through the use of online mediums and technology facilitates a broader understanding of what there is to be learnt.
Whether it be a simple black or white answer, reflecting on experiences to develop further learning, interacting with people around us or those accessible online, as these theories have discussed, learning largely depends on the environment, the overall process of how we learn, and subsequently how we as learners evaluate/interpret the information.
Flavell, J 1979, 'Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new era of cognitive development inquiry', American Psychologist, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 906-911.
Hall, J 2014, 'Memory and Cognition in Learning', American Society for Training & Development, vol. 31, no. 1405.
Walker, J 2012, A Brief Intro to Metacognition, viewed 29 August 2015, <www.youtube.com/watch?v=mVE21QhY-lI.>.
There are many theorists who have their own perspectives of the way we learn. Each of these theories detail different stages and the many ways individuals develop their learning skills.
This prezi provides an insight into the Transmissionist/Behaviourists, Cognitive, Constructive and Connectivism learning theories.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) bases his view that children's learning is acquired through their own personal experiences. According to Piaget, our language development is influenced by social interaction, learning from others, and as we develop further, interacting with the people around us.
According to Piaget constructivist theory, in order to provide an ideal learning environment, children should be allowed to construct knowledge that is meningful for them. Jean Piget (1896-1980).
Children exploring their own environment, while engaged with others, facilitates their language learning. Children move through four stages of mental development. Each stage gives a new kind of thought. The stages are described as:
Sensorimotor stage (up to age 2) during this period the infant learns to deal effectively with the physical and social world at the level of obvious behaviour. It ends with the level of symbolic thought.
Preoperational stage (two to seven) is a period during which the child has the ability to think about objects, words and other symbols. Through this stage children develop such skills as language and drawing ability.
Copian Library 2015, 3.4 Beliefs about Teaching and Learning, viewed 16 June 2015 < http://www.nald.ca/library/research/stranger/chap3/pg4.htm>
Image 1; Google image search ‘Connectivism’ [image] n.d., lampgieni.com, viewed 01 September 2015 <https://lampgieni.wordpress.com/category/study-in-course/>
Image 2; Google image search ‘Connectivism’ [image] 2014, coetail.com, viewed 01 September 2015 <www.coetail.com/online13-14/connectivism-and-moocs-the-web-we-weave/>
Image 3; Google image search 'Learning Theories' [image] 2013, wordpress.com, viewed 02 September 2015 <https://uminntilt.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/screen-shot-2013-01-16-at-11-15-55-am.png>
The Transmissionist (Behaviorism) model of education is defined by the student being a blank canvas.
All learners that have attended school would have experienced the transmissionist model of teaching.
Learning Theories - wordpress.com