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Bio - Diversity

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Teresa Friedrichsen

on 10 September 2016

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Transcript of Bio - Diversity

Protist
2 min: E coli
Virus
Bacteria
Archaea
Antibiotics
19 min: "bacteria talk"
DNA or RNA
Protein coat - capsid
Envelope (membrane) - optional

helical spherical polyhedral

Shapes
5 min: Amoeba Sisters
If you were the size of the state of California:
Size
Viroid – SS RNA but no protein coat - causes plant diseases
Prion – protein but no genetic material – causes other proteins to fold incorrectly

Smaller than a virus!?
Contain genetic material
Can reproduce
Are Viruses Alive?
No enzymes, ribosomes
No metabolism
No growth or development
Not made of cells


NO??
Must replicate in host cell
Therefore, viruses are NOT alive

Final answer??
YES??
T4 phages are Viruses that Attack the host E coli Bacteria

Lytic Cycle
Virus recognizes specific receptor molecules on surface of host

1. Attachment

Virus DNA injected into host cell

2. Entry
Virus DNA is replicated using host nucleotides & DNA polymerase
3. Replication
Host’s nucleotides, enzymes, ribosomes, aa’s, ATP, etc are used to make viral proteins

4. Transcription & Translation
Viral proteins & genome form 100’s of new viruses
5. Self Assembly
Host ruptures
Viruses released
6. Exit
http://www.biogeek.com/pages/freestuff.html

3 min review
Shapes
Structure
Streptococcus
Diplobacilli

Unicellular but
Can be in groups
diplo- pairs
staphylo- grape-like
strepto- chains
Staphylococcus

sticks to host
form hollow bridges to other bacteria
feed on organic materials
from dead or living organisms
Energy & Metabolism
some use light energy to make own organic molecules - PS
others use chemicals to make food - chemosynthesis
2. Some can be Autotrophs
Reproduction by Binary Fission
http://www.science.siu.edu/microbiology/micr302/figure%205.14.JPG

gene transfer
form hollow “bridges” using pili to connect to other bacteria
pass DNA across bridge
DNA replicates
Simple splitting
No mitosis or meiosis!


1. Some can be Heterotrophs
Decomposition – can help recycle or break down wastes, dead organisms, oil spills, etc.
Recycle C, N, S, & H in ecosystem
Beneficial
Important part of food chains (eaten by larger organisms)
Produce antibiotics used by humans to kill other bacteria
Used to make human food: sauerkraut, yogurt, cheese
Produce vitamin K in our intestines; help us digest food
Cause disease in plants & animals
Harmful:
Invade tissues & attack cells
Make toxins or poisons
Water droplets to mouth, nose, eyes- TB
Insect vectors- Bubonic plague or Lyme
Cuts in skin
Contaminated food & water - Salmonella, cholera
Spread thru
Sanitation & Hygiene
Heat or Cold
Antibiotics
Vaccines

Controlling Disease
Prokaryotic, unicellular
Spiral, bacilli, spherical
Also have cytoplasm, ribosomes, flagella
Reproduction by binary fission

1. Similar to Bacteria

cell walls (no peptidoglycan)
membranes (really different lipids)
genes

2. Different from Bacteria
a. Structurally different
Swamps, O2 free places, sewage treatment, stomachs of rumens (cows, deer, goats)
Hypertonic salt lakes
Hot & acidic:
deep ocean vents
sulfur springs

b. Extreme Environments
“Millions compete in endless turf battle, competing for habitat”
They evolved chemical weapons to wipe out competitors…..
Bacteria Evolution
Chemicals made by fungus or bacteria and collected from them by humans
Or chemicals designed by humans
That kill or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms
What are they?
Stop bacterial growth in our bodies
Give to chickens, pigs, and cows to keep them healthy and growing
Antibacterial mixtures keep body & home surfaces clean
How do humans use them?
Some bacteria are not destroyed or harmed by antibiotics!
Antibiotic Resistance
= not
resistant

Bacteria on nutrient agar

= resistant
to antibiotic

1 colony survives

Antibiotic added

No competition, unlimited resources
Resistance gene passed on to offspring: all bacteria resistant!
http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/177_06_160902/col10836_fm-1.gif

http://www.nearingzero.net/screen_res/nz149.jpg

Resistance genes can pass to other bacteria using plasmids, viruses, or loose DNA in surroundings
http://www.paratekpharm.com/graphics/infect/graph_spread.gif

Problem in hospitals & now common in athletic teams where skin infections passed easily
Can cause serious infection, toxic shock, & even death.
Another Serious Example: MRSA methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Don’t take one unless it’s needed (won’t work on viruses)!
Avoid infections – ie. clean & treat skin infections properly
Finish all medication so that all bacteria die and can’t pass on resistance
Become a scientist and discover new antibiotics!
How can you thwart antibiotic resistance?
http://www.msvfoundation.org/images/snort-poster.jpg

ANTIBIOTICS
Conjugation
3 min
3.5 min
9.5 min TB resistance
Animal
Fungus
Protist
k
Plant-like
Animal-like
Fungus-like
uni or multicellular
no roots, stems or leaves
pigments in chloroplasts

cell walls
unicellular
no cell wall
move & feed with flagella, pseudopods, or cilia
Kingdom
Invertebrates
Vertebrates
Structure
What are they?
Resistance

2.5 min Amoeba engulfs Paramecium
3 min kelp forest ecosystem
4 min review
3.5 min slime molds
resistance genes on plasmids passed through pili that form bridge
Phylum Chordata
Sub Phylum
many Phyla
notochord becomes backbone
dorsal nerve cord becomes brain & spinal cord
post anal tail
pharyngeal slits
3% of animals!
4 min NPR
Ingestive heterotrophs
:
Ingest
use cilia to move food into body
use pseudopod to engulf food
Digest food inside cell

Energy source:
Autotrophs
Euglenoids can also be heterotrophs!
unicellular or multicellular
no chitin in cell walls
some thread-like, others slug-like
heterotrophs
All protists live in water, damp places, or inside other organisms
multicellular (yeast - unicellular)
made of hyphae- thin, threadlike filaments
mass of hyphae is mycelium
Energy:
Reproduction
digest: - exoenyzmes sent out of hyphae to break down food
ingest: nutrients absorbed into hyphae
absorptive heterotrophs
spores!
formed in reproductive structures
light weight, small
easily dispersed in air, water, or on animals
enormous #s produced
dormant until germination
internal skeleton including vertebrae
brain enclosed in a skull
pumping heart & efficient circ. system
Vertebrates
Agnatha
Chondrichthyes
Osteichthyes
cartilage
jaws
bone
legs
internal fertilization
feathers
hair
Chordates
multicellular
heterotrophs
collagen
nervous & muscular systems
homeobox genes
move
diploid organism produces diploid offspring
1.5 min reproduction & spores
protist would be the size of
bacteria would be the size of
virus would be the size of
football field
a bus
a worm
animals*
plants*
16 min chordates
23 min Bill Nye
7.5 min Amoeba sisters
3 min overview
hyphae
21 min magic doctor
what 2 processes happen to DNA?
cell walls made of chitin
some have septa (walls) between cells
cytoplasm, nutrients, organelles can move between cells
5 min part 1 frog dissection
7 min part 2 frog dissection
5 min how microbes form communities
7 min but start at 4 min
4.5 min ted ed
http://www.vox.com/2016/9/8/12852924/evolution-bacteria-timelapse-video-mega-harvard
evolution of resistance
Full transcript