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Untitled Prezi

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by

Negin Oghabi

on 9 July 2013

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Transcript of Untitled Prezi

Selective breeding
So, what is selective breeding?
What is is used for?
And why is it used?
What are the advantages of selective breeding?
Are there any disadvantages?

Why do this?
Farmers carry out selective breeding to produce the best qualities for their animals' offspring, or to get the best produce of crops. Hence, this will give the farmer a produce with certain characteristics, that will benefit both subsistence farmers, and the farmers that will grow crops for trade. However, this may have disadvantageous effects as well.

Can you say whether the following have been selectively bred, and why?
What is it?
Scientists and farmers may want to produce organisms that have useful qualities and characteristics.
Therefore, one way to do this, is selective breeding.
Different types of apples
How are apples selectively bred?
Advantages
Economic: Higher economic gain would be an advantage to farmers, because of their high quality produce- e.g. high milk yield, fresh crops.
These favourable groups will be hence passed onto their offspring.
Survival: this provides animals with better health to survive in poor climates or through environmental struggles, such as starvation or the loss of habitat.
Disadvantages
There is the reduction of natural gene pools.
This hence causes genetic problems for the animal or plant, which may lead to illnesses.
This is furthermore an IRREVERSIBLE alteration.
The more inbreeding, to fix a desirable trait, the more likely that the offspring will inherit the same set of genes from the the immune system of their parents.
Therefore, their immune system will be very weak , or it may act too vigorously to create auto immune problems- e.g. rheumatoid arthitis.
Examples of selective breeding in a farm
In other words, selective breeding is a modern agricultural method of producing crops (and breeding animals) with beneficial and favorable characters.
What use is selective breeding to scientists?
experiment with different characteristics and the behavior of different animals
used to test the theories of evolution
see if selective breeding affects the reflexes and the stimulus of the organisms
give new ideas for the theories of evolution
"Gene pools" are the sum of all the genetic variations, within a species.
Inbreeding is breeding from closely related animals- so the reproduction of two genetically related animals.
Auto immunity is when the immune system acts so strongly that it harms the body, damages muscles, tissues, bones, skin etc.
"Gene pools" are the sum of all the genetic variations, within a species.
Inbreeding is breeding from closely related animals- so the reproduction of two genetically related animals.
Auto immunity is when the immune system acts so strongly that it harms the body, damages muscles, tissues, bones, skin etc.
Selective breeding in apples!!
Apples!!! munch munch munch...
Apple trees take 4 to 5 years to produce their first fruit!!
The scientific name for the word 'apple' is '
Malus Domestica
'!!!
Apples come from the

rose

family, and can be also called
'
Aplicus Rosacea'.
That's why they have the rosy aroma.
Apple contain no cholesterol and no saturated fat!!
What characteristics do the farmers look for, to improve the characteristics of the apple?
C
o
l
o
u
r
size
and date of ripening
flavour and texture
The gala apple:
Appearance:
Pale golden yellow
with
red stripes.

Texture:
firm and crispy

Flavour:
vanilla like
,
sweet
,
floral aroma
.

Size:
small to medium
.

Uses:
fresh eating, pies, baking and freezing, salads.

Date of ripening:
August.
Braeburn apples:
Appearance:
Reddish patches
on
yellow
to
light green
backgrounds.
Texture:
Firm and very crispy
.
Flavour:
tangy
,
spicy sweet flavour
, and sometimes
sour
.
Size: medium to large.
Uses:
pies, salads, sauces, snacking, baking, freezing.
Date of ripening:
late September or October.
Granny Smith apples:
Appearance:
green.

Texture:
firm, medium grained.

Flavour:
strong, sour and lemony taste.

Size: :
medium to large.

Uses:
sauces, baking, pies, and salads.
Red -fleshed apples:
Appearance:
bright red in the inside and on the outside.
Texture:
Firm and crispy
.
Size:
small to medium.
Flavour:
very sour and sharp.
Uses:
cooking.
They ripen at different long seasons.
By Negin, Yasmin, and Adna.
Apples are bred using back crossing. This method is when you mix the apple with the trait you want with another apple that has a different trait you want.

However, there is only an even chance that you will get an apple with both traits.
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