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Pakistan Floods, 2010; Flooding Project

A brief introduction to flooding, then on to discussing the 2010 Pakistan Floods.
by

Habib al Khalifa

on 16 June 2013

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Transcript of Pakistan Floods, 2010; Flooding Project

The 2010 Pakistan floods began in late July 2010, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan, which affected the Indus River basin.







Approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater, approximately 796,095 square kilometres (307,374 sq mi).

According to Pakistani government data, the floods directly affected about 20 million people, mostly by destruction of property, livelihood and infrastructure, with a death toll of close to 2,000.
Flooding
Haroon Rashid
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is normally dry.

Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river or lake, in which the water over tops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries.

Flooding may also occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood.

Introduction to Flooding
Heavy rain and high tide causing flooding of Rapid Creek on February 19th 2008 in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.
Major Floods
Throughout History
North China Flooding, 1887
Location: Northern China
Cause: Yellow River (Huang He) overflowing in Northern China
Effects: 2 000 000 people loose homes, 900 000 people die
Johnstown Flood (The Great Flood), 1889
Location: Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA
Cause: Heavy rainfalls & South Fork Dam failure located upstream Johnstown
Effects: 17 million USD in property damage, 2 200 people die
Bangladesh Floods, 1974
Location: Bangladesh
Cause: Monsoon rains
Effects: 2 billion USD in property damage, 2 500 people die, diseases such as chlorea cause more to die afterwards
The Bangladesh flood almost covered all livable land space within the country.
The Focus
The Pakistan Floods, 2010
Abstract
July 30, 2010
Mid-August, 2010
Flooding & Impacts
500,000 or more people were displaced
from their homes and 950 000 people were
affected. By the end of the day, 1 000 000 people
were affected.
Flooding & Impacts
Until now, the floods have caused the deaths of at least
1,540 people, while 2,088 people have received injuries,
557,226 houses have been destroyed, and over 6 million
people have been displaced.
Flooding & Impacts
The number of people affected reaches well
around 20 million people.
Flooding & Impacts
Mid-August, 2010
Mid-September, 2010
Causes
Life in many parts of Pakistan depends on the rains which arrive during the monsoon season. The monsoon of 2010, however, delivered exceptionally high rainfall across areas of northern Pakistan. The three main rivers, Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum, transport the water from the Northern Regions of Pakistan to the Indian Ocean. This resulted in widespread flooding across the entire country in the days and weeks which followed.
Land washed away by flooding is seen from a Pakistan Army helicopter during relief operations on September 13, 2010 in the village of Goza, Dadu district in Sindh province, Pakistan.
Monsoon rains were forecast to continue
from July into early August and were described
as the worst in the area in the past 80 years.

The tally has risen to 1,781 deaths,
2,966 people with injuries, and more than
1.89 million homes destroyed.
Agricultural Impacts
In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland were destroyed, and toward the southern province of Sindh.

The affected crops included cotton, sugarcane, rice, pulses, tobacco and animal fodder.

Floodwaters and rain destroyed 700,000 acres (3,000 km2) of cotton, 200,000 acres (800 km2) acres each of rice and sugarcane, 500,000 tonnes of wheat and 300,000 acres (1,000 km2) of animal fodder.

According to the Pakistan Cotton Ginners Association, the floods destroyed 2 million bales of cotton, which increased futures prices.
Aftermath
The power infrastructure of Pakistan took a severe blow from the floods, which damaged 10,000 transmission lines and transformers, feeders and power houses in different flood-hit areas.
Black death (e.g. gastroenteritis, diachronic, and skin diseases) due to lack of clean drinking water and sanitation was growing common in many victims. On August 14th, the first documented case of cholera in Pakistan emerged in the town of Mingora, striking fear into millions of stranded flood victims, who were already suffering from gastroenteritis and diarrhea. Pakistan also faced a malaria outbreak.
The United Nations estimated that about 800,000 people were cut off by floods in Pakistan and were only reachable by air. Many of those cut off were in the mountainous northwest, where roads and bridges had been swept away with some still not repaired to this day.
By order of President Asif Ali Zardari, no official celebrations of Pakistan's 63rd Independence Day on August 14th were held due to the calamity.
Potential
Long-Term Effects
Infrastructure
Political Effects
Foods & Nutrition
Economical Effects
Taliban Insurgency
An estimated 2,433 miles (3,916 km) of highway and 3,508 miles
(5,646 km) of railway was damaged and still remains to be. Repairs are expected to cost at least 158 million USD and 131 million USD.


Public building damage is estimated at 1 billion USD.


It is estimated that 10,000 schools were destroyed.
The flooding lead to government inefficiency
and political unrest causing protests against the Pakistani government. It has been reported that the government was keeping some of the aid money for themselves.
Floods submerged 17 million acres (69,000 km2) of Pakistan's most fertile crop land, directly killed 200,000 livestock and washed away massive amounts of grain.

A major concern was that farmers would be unable to meet the fall deadline for planting new seeds in 2010, which implied a loss of food production in 2011, and potential long term food shortages.

The agricultural damage reached more than 2.9 billion USD, and included the loss of cotton, rice, sugarcane, wheat and animal fodder (see 'Impacts' for exact amounts).

Near the end of September, it was announced by the World Food Programme that about 70% of Pakistan's population, mostly in rural areas, did not have adequate access to proper nutrition.
It was reported that the flood would divert Pakistani military forces from fighting the Pakistani Taliban insurgents (TTP) in the northwest to help in the relief effort, giving Taliban fighters a chance to revive their groups.

In August, a Taliban spokesperson asked the Pakistani government to reject Western help from "Christians and Jews" and claimed that the Taliban could raise 20 million USD to replace that aid, but the government rejected the Taliban's proposal.

Pakistani Taliban, however, also engaged in relief efforts, making inroads where the government was absent or seen as corrupt.
On 7 September 2010, the International Labour Organization reported that the floods had cost more than 5.3 million jobs.

Crop losses were expected to impact textile manufacturing, Pakistan's largest export sector. The loss of over 10 million head of livestock in total along with the loss of other crops would reduce agricultural production by more than 15%.

Nationwide car sales fell as much as 25%, forcing automakers to reduce production in October, 2010. Milk supplies fell by 15%, which caused the retail price of milk to increase by Pk Rs 4 (5 US cents) per litre.
Relief Efforts
By the end of July 2010, Pakistan had appealed to international donors for help in responding to the disaster, having already provided 21 helicopters and 150 boats to assist affected people.

The United Nations launched its relief efforts and appealed for 460 million USD to provide immediate help, including food, shelter and clean water.

Pakistani Troops had been deployed in all affected areas and had rescued thousands of people. By early August, more than 352 291 people had been rescued.

Muslim countries, organizations and individuals had pledged close to 1 billion USD to assist in Pakistan's flood emergency.

Saudi Arabia had allocated more than 361.99 million USD for the relief operation, topping the list of all donating countries. Just the Saudi royal family alone provided 105.29 million USD for relief efforts.
* These are just some of the many relief efforts that took place in Pakistan.
Flood affected districts on August 16 (UN-OCHA) and flood hydrographs at 4 different stations (Pakistan Meteorological Department).
Notice the difference
in accumulated rainfall
in summer of 2009
compared to summer
of 2010.
Most major flooding occurred in and around the confluence of the 3 rivers.
Aid Requirements
Aid required for first 90 days: 459 million USD
Total cost of rebuilding/rehabilitation: 10-15 billion USD
Received to date: 689 million USD
(341 million USD pledged)

Estimated cost to feed flood victims: 150 million USD
World Health Organization requests: 56 million USD
Received by WHO: 24 million USD
96.4% of the people living in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan are muslim, 187,343,000 people . This means that almost the entire country was fasting during the month of Ramadan. In 2010, Ramadan began late July and ended Late August, during the time of the flood. The flood victims had to first fight through hunger due to the fast, and then had to fight from hunger due to food shortages for Suhoor, the time right before the sun rises closing the fast with your last meal, and Iftar, the time where the sun sets opening the fast and permitting you to eat or drink.
Villagers, displaced from their homes by flooding, hold empty containers as they queue for soup and relief rations on August 25, 2010 in the Sultan Colony Army flood relief camp near Muzaffargarh in Punjab, Pakistan.
Flood victims scramble for food rations as they battle the downwash from a Pakistan Army helicopter during relief operations on September 13, 2010 in the village of Goza in Dadu district in Sindh province, Pakistan.
Flood victims scramble for food rations, dropped by Pakistan Army soldiers, as they battle the downwash from a Pakistan Army helicopter during relief operations on September 13, 2010 on the Suprio Bund near the village of Goza in Dadu district in Sindh province, Pakistan.
Young girls, whose families were displaced by floods, sit on a makeshift bed, as they take shelter on higher ground of a bund on August 29, 2010 in Thatta, near Hyderabad in Sindh province, Pakistan.
Villagers displaced from their homes by flooding travel through flood waters on the back of a tractor on August 11, 2010 on the outskirts of Muzaffargarh in Punjab, Pakistan.
A Pakistani man surveys damage to his flood affected home on August 2, 2010 in Nowshera, Pakistan.
A boy walks through a flooded yard carrying water prior to Maghrib prayer and Iftar, or breaking fast as it is called, during the month of Ramadan on August 21, 2010 in the village of Vasandawali south of Muzaffargarh in Punjab, Pakistan.
Flood victims scramble to recover water bottles dropped from a Pakistan Air force helicopter on August 2, 2010 in Nowshera, Pakistan.
Pakistani villagers perform the Maghrib prayer, as they seek refuge on top of the roof of a Madrasa surrounded by flood waters, after Iftar or breaking fast in the month of Ramadan, on August 21, 2010 in the village of Vasandawali south of Muzaffargarh in Punjab, Pakistan. They seek forgiveness from god in the wake of disaster and pray for a welcoming future.
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