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Civil War

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Donny Stamper

on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of Civil War

Lincoln's Suspension of Habeas Corpus
The Constitution of the United States provides that "The Privilege of the
Writ of Habeas Corpus
shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it (Article 1, Section 9)." This allowed individuals in defiance of federal law to be held in prison indefinitely. Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus and it was used to target those who defied the call to serve in the Union Army and all who served in the Confederate Army. Later Lincoln’s actions were declared Unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Nat Turner's Rebellion 1831
In 1831, Turner led six other enslaved people to kill the plantation family that owned Turner. This rebellion grew to about 60 enslaved people. Atleast 55 whites were killed. Some of the enslaved were caught and hanged, but many innocent blacks were also punished (some by death). Turner was imprisoned and later executed. The rebellion increased the fears of southern plantation owners and led to tighter controls on enslaved blacks.
Grimke Sisters
Sarah Grimke (1792–1873) and Angelina Grimke (1805–1879), known as the Grimke sisters, were 19th-century Southern American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.

They traveled throughout the North, lecturing about their first hand experiences with slavery on their family's plantation. Among the first women to act publicly in social reform movements, they received abuse and ridicule for their abolitionist activity.
Antietam 1862
"Bloodiest Day of the Civil War"
aka: Battle of Sharpsburg (by the South)
Over 23,000 dead (12k Confederates and 11k Union ).

It was considered a victory by the Union when Robert E. Lee and the Confederate troops retreated.

This victory was the platform Lincoln was looking for to announce the
Emancipation Proclamation
.

International Implications: The Confederacy was on the verge of being recognized as a Nation by France & England. This loss ruined that opportunity.
Fort Sumter
Charleston, South Carolina
One of three forts that guarded the harbor at Charleston, SC in 1860.

When South Carolina seceded, they demanded that the U.S. Army turn over each fort to the state of South Carolina.

December 1860, in the middle of the night Major Robert Anderson transferred his men and arms from Ft Moultrie to the much
safer
Ft Sumter.

April 1861 - General Beauregard and 6000 troops surround the island
and open fire.

36 hours later, Major Anderson
lowered the American flag
in surrender.

The Civil War had begun.
Ulysses S. Grant
General for the Union Army (1862-1865)

U.S. President: 1869 – 1877

Chosen by Lincoln to lead even though he had been married into a slaveholding Missouri family.
1825 - 1832
- He was the Vice President for both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.

1828
- Congress passes Tariff of 1828. In the south they called it the Tariff of Abominations.
It was supported in the (industrial) north where it increased the sale of goods manufactured in the United States.
It hurt the economy of the south bc southern states traded cotton to Europe for manufactured items.

1832 -
John C. Calhoun becomes the first Vice President to resign from office.
He does so because he wants a seat in the Senate where he thought that he could more effectively influence southern interests..

Resigns as V.P. on 12/29 and is a South Carolina senator on 12/30.

John C. Calhoun, "the right of a State to interpose, in the last resort, in order to arrest an unconstitutional act of the General Government, within its limits."
John C. Calhoun
Where the Civil War Began and Ended.
Wilmot Proviso
provision attached to the funding of the Mexican-American War by Senator David Wilmot in 1846.

Attempted to ban the spread of slavery in lands acquired from Mexico.

Ultimately it was unsuccessful but it would eventually divide politicians and lead to the Republican party (1854) which was built on an antislavery platform.
Battle of Gettysburg - 1863
"Turning Point of the Civil War"
Robert E. Lee
Commander of the Confederate Army

Well respected by southerners AND northerners

Son of a Revolutionary War hero, and a 25 year distinguished veteran of the United States Army and former Superintendent of West Point.

April 20, 1861 - Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army. "I cannot raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children."

Turned down Lincoln's offer to lead the Union Army because he believed himself to be a Virginian above all things.

Led troops against overwhelming odds in the Civil War.

Blamed himself for the South's loss
Battle for Atlanta
Significance of Atlanta
New Land, New States, New Problems
New Land -


New States -


New Problems -
Louisiana Purchase -1803

Mexican-American War Cessions - 1848
Missouri, Maine 1820
Kansas, Nebraska - 1854
California - 1850
Balance of North/South in Legislature

Slave state or Free State
Compromises for New States
Missouri Compromise of 1820 -
Missouri 1st state from Louisiana Purchase (1803).
Entered as a slave state
Maine enters as a free state to keep balance
All slavery banned in Louisiana Purchase territory above the 36/30'N parallel


Compromise of 1850 - California becomes a free state
Popular Sovereignty would be standard in territory/states received from the Mexican-American War(1846-1848).
Fugitive Slave Act (stronger)
No slave trading in Washington D.C.


Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) -
Compromise of 1850 did not include the Louisiana Territory.
This Act allowed Kansas and Nebraska to choose if they would/wouldn't become free/slave states.
Would lead to Bleeding Kansas
The Nullification Crisis of 1832
South Carolina had threatened to secede and/or to nullify federal legislation.

In 1832, they followed through with one threat by passing the Ordinance of Nullilfication. (declaring federal legislation illegal within its borders)

This ends when they reach a compromise tariff but it sets the tone for the next 30 years of debate over federal and state governments.
Flag Raising Ceremony, Fort Sumter:
A crowd awaits the raising of the American flag in April, 1865. The Confederate Flag flew over Fort Sumter throughout the Civil War
West Virginia is Born
As the years went by there were many attempts for the eastern counties to try to get support from their western rivals, through reforms in taxation and voting rights.
First Battle of Bull Run
AKA:

First Manassas

Manassas, Virginia - July 21, 1861
1st Major Battle of the Civil War.

Three months after the Confederates attacked Fort Sumter.

In the North the public demand pushed Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell to advance on the South before adequately training his untried troops.

Confederate Gen. Thomas J. Jackson earns the nickname "Stonewall," as his brigade resists Union attacks.

Union troops retreat to Washington.
THE UNION BLOCKADE
Less than a week after the Confederates attacked Ft Sumter (April 12-14, 1861).

President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the blockade on April 19, 1861

Union began its blockade of the southern states in an effort to prevent the trade of goods, supplies, and weapons between the Confederacy and other nations.

From 1861 to 1865 the Union Navy maintained a strenuous effort to blockade the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America
Ruins of the Stone Bridge over which Northern forces retreated until it was blown up by a Rebel shell adding to the panic of the retreat, with the Federals returning to Washington as "a rain-soaked mob."
RESULTS:
"THE ANACONDA PLAN"
- To blockade the coast of the Confederacy effectively, the federal navy had to be improved. By July, the effort at improvement had made a difference and an effective blockade had begun. The South responded by building small, fast ships that could outmaneuver Union vessels.
The Union commissioned 500 ships, which destroyed or captured about 1,500 blockade runners over the course of the war; nonetheless, five out of six attempts to evade the blockade were successful
The Union Army under Gen. Irvin McDowell suffers a defeat at Bull Run.

President Lincoln realizes the war will be long. "It's damned bad," he comments.

Numbers Fought: 60,680 total (Union 28,450; Confederates 32,230)

Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (Union 2,950; Confederates 1,750)

In less than a week, on April 27, 1861 - President Lincoln replaces Brig. Gen. McDowell with George B. McClellan as Commander of the Department of the Potomac.
Battle of Vicksburg
&
Battle of Gettysburg
-During the first half of the Civil War, things went badly for the Union Army. In July, 1863, however, two important battles would turn the tide in the North's favor.
-And although they were both fought during the first week of July, 1863, they could not have been more different from one another.
Battle of Vicksburg - 1863
- July 1-3 1863
- Robert E. Lee and the Confederates hoped to invade the North.
- Lee was now without Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, who was killed in May
- PICKETT'S CHARGE - On July 2, Lee made a serious tactical error when he ordered General George Pickett to send more than 15,000 men charging across an open field toward the Union's artillery line. Thousands of these men met violent deaths.
- Lee and the Confederate forces retreated
- Union General George Meade refused to further pursue surviving rebel troops, allowing Lee to continue fighting. As a result of Meade's actions, Lincoln relieved him of his command and appointed Grant as commander of all Union forces in Meade's place.
- Union General Ulysses S. Grant wanted to capture the South's all-important Vicksburg.
"Vicksburg is the key! The war can never be brought to a close until that key is in our pocket." - Abraham Lincoln
- Vicksburg was important because the army that controlled its high ground over a bend in the Mississippi River would control traffic on the whole river.
- Grant and the Union Grant's seizure of the vital Confederate seaport of Vicksburg, Mississippi, was the result of brilliant military strategy.
- AS A RESULT: Confederate troops and supplies in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas were cut off from the Confederacy.
"BRILLIANT STRATEGY"
"A COSTLY ACCIDENT"
Source:

Author unkown. "The Union Turns the Tide: Vicksburg" and "The Union Turns the Tide: Gettysburg," excerpted from Abraham Lincoln: An Illustrated History of His Life and Times, p. 98 & 99. TIME Books, Time Inc., 2009.
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