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Chemical Bonding

Ionic and Covalent Bonding and Structures
by

Cody Schellenberger

on 31 October 2015

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Transcript of Chemical Bonding

The topics covered
Atoms, Ions and Molecules.
Background Definitions
Ions and Ionic Bonding
Non-metals form negative ions
with names ending in -ide

Positive Ions have the
same name as the atom

There are elements that
do not normally gain or loose
electrons because it takes
too much energy.

When naming ionic compounds
we place the positive ion
FIRST.
We can also find the formula
from the name.

A compound is made of oppositely charged ions, bonded together.
A compound is described by a formula, made from symbols of the atoms in it.
The plural of formula is
formulae.
The correct number of atoms is the inverse (opposite) of the ratio of the charges:

When Describing Compounds
Valence Electrons
The electrons in an atoms outer most shell. These electrons determine the chemical properties of the element.
Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Shells = Orbitals
Octet Rule
Atoms tend to gain or lose their electrons in order to acquire a full set of 8 valence electrons.
Like the noble gases.
Oxidation
Positive or negative charge on an ion.
The loss or gain of electrons resulting in a positive or negative charge on an ion.
Ion
Atom with a positive or negative charge.
Cation
Positive Ions (
plussy cat
)
Anion
Negative Ions
Atomic Number
or
Proton Number
Is the number of protons
Which for elements is the same as the number of electrons.
Multiple Oxidation States
Metals in the middle can have more than one
oxidation number
. We use a roman numeral to tell us the
oxidation number
.
By the middle, we are referring to the
transition metals
and
common metals
located in the middle of the periodic table
Noble Gas Configuration
Ions give or take electrons in exact amounts to become like the nearest noble gas.
Ionic Bond
Electro-static forces that hold oppositely charged particles together in a compound (
not a molecule
)
Crystal Lattice
A structure whose ions are arranged in an orderly geometric 3-D pattern. (
always straight lines, perfect angles and dimensions
)
Polyatomic Ion
or
Compound Ion
Ion
made up of 2 or more atoms bonded together that acts as a single unit (
you cannot break it up
).
NH
4
+
Ammonium
OH
-
Hydroxide
NO
3
_
Nitrate
SO
4
-2
Sulphate
CO
3
-2
Carbonate
HCO
3
-
Hydrogen Carbonate
PO
4
-3
Phosphate
Aluminum --> Aluminum
Al
+3
Even as a
cation
Oxygen --> Oxide
O
-2
Name changes to an -ide suffix when an
anion
Magnesium is +
2
--> Oxygen is -
2
2
:
2
reduces to
1
:
1
Therefore Magnesium Oxide is
MgO
or 1
Mg
and 1
O

Magnesium is +
2
and Chloride is -
1
Therefore the ratio is
2
:
1
We will have the opposite or inverse of this relationship in the number of atoms.
1
Magnesium atom and
2
Chloride
MgCl
2
Aluminum is +
3
and Sulfate is -
2
we can apply the same method to polyatomic ions as well.
The ratio is
3
:
2
Therefore we will have
2
Al and
3
SO
4
2-
Al (SO )
4
2-
2
3
The sharing of electrons!
Covalent Bonding
The sharing of electrons in the outer energy level of two atoms in order to bond or connect two atoms to one another.
What is a Covalent Bond?
Are these atoms of chlorine very stable by themselves?


What would make these atoms more stable?
Why do covalent bonds form?
No
If each atom had 8 valance electrons they would be more stable.
www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/covalent.html
Each chlorine atom shares one electron with the other chlorine atom.
How do covalent bonds make molecules from atoms?
Both atoms are more stable.
Nonmetals and Nonmetals

Metalloids and Nonmetals
What type of atoms form covalent bonds?
Single Covalent Bonds
What are different types of covalent bonds that can form?
Triple Covalent Bonds
Double Covalent Bonds
http://web.neo.edu/rjones/Pages/1014new/Lecture/chemistry/chapter_9/pages/chemical_bonds.html
Keep sharing those electrons!
COVALENT BONDING CONTINUED
Single Covalent Bonds:
One electron from each atom is shared
Images taken from: www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/covalent.html
Single Covalent Bonds
Double Covalent Bonds:
Each atom shares two electrons with the other atom
Oxygen Gas
Images taken from: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/doublebonds.html#top
Ethene
Double Covalent Bonds
Image taken from: http://www.800mainstreet.com/5/0005-003-n-triple.gif
Each atom shares three electrons with the other atom
Triple Covalent Bonds
If the molecule is made of just one type of atom call it by the element name

For example this molecule is called Chlorine or Chlorine Gas
How do you name molecules that are formed from covalent bonds?
If the molecule just contains two different elements you can follow three steps to name it.
How do you name molecules that are formed from covalent bonds?
Step 1:
Write the name of the element in the compound farthest to the left on the periodic table first and the other element second.

For example in the compound above: Phosphorous Chlorine
How do you name molecules that are formed from covalent bonds?
Step 2:
Change the last two or three letters of the last word in the molecule to “ide”

For example in the molecule above: Change Phosphorous chlorine to Phosphorous chloride.
How do you name molecules that are formed from covalent bonds?
mono
|
di
|
tri
|
tetra
|
penta
|
hexa
|
hepta
|
octa
|
nona
|
deca

Step 3:
Add prefixes to the name. Choose the correct prefix in the table above for each word in the compound, but never put mono in front of the first word in the compound.

For example in the compound above: Change Phosphorous chloride to Phosphorous trichloride
How do you name molecules that are formed from covalent bonds?
1.
2.
3.
Review Questions for the Bonding Test
Electrons
Neutrons
Protons
Dipoles
A chemical bond results from the mutual attraction of the nuclei for:
Are similar in electronegativity
Are of the same size
Differ in electronegativity
Have the same number of electrons
A polar covalent bond is likely to form between two atoms that:
COCl2
C2H6
CF4
SF2
Which molecule contains a double bond?
Ionic
Nonpolar covalent
Polar covalent
State whether the bond between K-N is ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent.
Ionic
Nonpolar covalent
Polar covalent
State whether the bond between Cl-Cl is ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent.
1
2
3
4
How many shared (bonding) pairs of electrons does water, H2O, contain?
1
2
3
4
How many unshared (lone) pairs of electrons does water, H2O, contain?
2
4
6
8
How many electrons are shared in a molecule of O2?
1
2
3
None of these
How many unshared pairs of electrons are there in hydrogen fluoride, HF?
Li and Br
Br and C
Mg and C
He and O
Which of the following pairs of elements can be joined by a covalent bond?
1
2
3
4
5
6
How many valence electrons does germanium, Ge, have?
N-N
N=N
N (three horizontal lines) N
N (four horizontal lines) N
Which one is the correct structure for N2?
Oxygen is the middle atom and the Chlorine atoms and Carbon atom are all bonded to Oxygen with single covalent bonds.
Carbon is the middle atom and the Chlorine atoms and Oxygen atom are all bonded to Carbon with single covalent bonds.
Carbon is the middle atom and the Chlorine atoms are bonded to Carbon with single covalent bonds and Oxygen is bonded to Carbon with a double covalent bond.
Which is the correct structure for COCl2?
That share valence electrons
That share inner electrons
When one atom gives one or more electrons to another atom
A covalent bond is formed between two atoms:
Carbon (IV) chloride
Monocarbon tetrachloride
Monocarbon pentachloride
Carbon tetrachloride
What is the name for CCl4?
MgS
Na2O
K2(OH)3
Al2(SO4)3

Which of the formulas below is incorrect?
Iron (II) Phosphate
Iron (III) Phosphate
Iron Phosphate
Triron diphosphate
What is the name of Fe3(PO4)2
Released (or energy is given off)
Absorbed (or energy is needed)
Energy is ______ when an ionic crystal is formed from gaseous ions
Released
Absorbed
In order to melt an crystal and separate its ions, energy is __________.
Ionic compounds
Molecules
Which normally has the highest melting point?
Liquid with polar covalent molecules.
Liquid with non-polar covalent molecules.
A crystal (ionic compound) dissolved in water.
A solid crystal (ionic compound).
What can carry electrical current?
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