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Fluids and Pressure

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Michele Fishman

on 2 June 2017

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Transcript of Fluids and Pressure

Fluids and Pressure
Fluids and Pressure
-living things spend a lifetime moving through and breathing fluids.
-a fluid is any material that can flow and that takes the shape of its container.
-fluids include liquids(water & oil) and gases(oxygen & carbon dioxide)
-fluids are able to flow because the particles in fluids, unlike the particles in solids, can move easily past each other.
-fluids can allow huge ships to float, divers to explore the bottom of the sea, and jumbo jets to soar across the sky.
Why are Bubbles Round?
-when you blow a bubble, you only blow in one direction.
-why doesnt the bubble get longer and longer as you blow instead of rounder and rounder?
-the shape of the bubble is due to an important property of fluids:Fluids exert pressure evenly in all directions.
-the air you blow into the bubble exerts pressure evenly in every direction, helping create a sphere.

Atmospheric Pressure
-the atmosphere is the layer of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and other gases that surround the Earth.
-the atmosphere stretches 150 km above us.
-80 percent of the gases in the atmosphere are found within 10km of the Earths surface.
-Earths atmosphere is held in place by gravity, which pulls the gases toward Earth.
-the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure.
Pressure Depends on Depth
-Pressure increases as you descend through the atmosphere.
-the pressure increases as the atmosphere gets deeper.
-Pressure depends on the depth of the fluid
-at lower levels of the atmosphere, there is more fluid above you being pulled by Earths gravitational force, so there is more pressure.

All Fluids Exert Pressure
-air, water, and blood are all fluids, and all exert pressure.
-What is Pressure?
-When you pump a bike tire, you push air into the tire.
-like all matter, air is made of tiny particles that are constantly moving.
-inside the tire, the air particles push against each other and against the walls of the tire.

All Fluids Exert Pressure
-the more air you pump into the tire, the more air particles push against the inside of your tire.
-Together, these pushes create a force against the tire.
-the amount of force exerted on a given area is pressure.
-pressure can be calculated in this formula.
-the SI unit for pressure is pascal. 1Pa is the force of 1 newton exerted over an area of 1 square meter. (1N/m2)

Atmospheric Pressure
-atmospheric pressure is exerted on everything on Earth, including you.
-the atmosphere exerts a pressure of approximately 101,300N on every square meter, or 101,300Pa.
-this means that there is a weight of about 10N(roughly the weight of a pineapple) on every square centimeter(roughly the tip of your finger) of your body.
Why don't you feel this crushing pressure? The fluids inside your body also exert pressure, just like the air inside a balloon exerts pressure.
Atmospheric Pressure Varies
-at the top of the atmosphere, pressure is almost non-existent because there is no atmosphere pressing down.
-at the top of Mt Everest(highest point on Earth), atmospheric pressure is about 33,000Pa or 33kiloPascals
-at sea level, atmospheric pressure is about 101kPa
Pressure Depends on Depth
-if you travel to higher or lower points in the atmosphere, the fluids in your body have to adjust to maintain equal pressure.
-you may have experienced this if your ears have ever "popped" while you were on a plane taking off or traveling down a steep mountain in a car.
-small pockets of air behind your eardrums contract or expand as atmospheric pressure increases or decreases.
-the "pop" occurs when air is released due to these pressure changes.
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