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America in World War II- Part 1
Transcript of America in World War II- Part 1
to the rise of dictatorships. The Russian Revolution led to the world's first Communist state in the Soviet Union. The dissolution of the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires led to the creation of fragile new democracies in other parts of Europe. Benito Mussolini formed the Fascist Party, which took power in Italy in 1922. Adolf Hitler took power in Germany in 1933 after high unemployment caused by the Great Depression. These new dictators glorified violence, obedience to leaders, and extreme nationalism. They arrested, imprisoned and often killed their opponents. Hitler's Nazi Party condemned Jews and other groups. Hitler had an expansionist foreign policy. He re-armed Germany, helped Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, annexed Austria, and demanded the Sudentenland in Czechoslovakia in 1938. The League of Nations failed to stop aggressors. British and French leaders gave in to Hitler's demands in an attempt at appeasement. Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia, and then demanded part of Poland in 1939. This time, British and French leaders refused to give in. After signing a non-aggression pact with Stalin, Hitler attacked Poland, starting World War II in Europe. In Asia, Japanese military leaders had already occupied Manchuria in 1931 and had invaded eastern China in 1937. The German army developed a new form of offensive warfare-the Blitzkrieg. Rapid coordinated movements of airplanes, tanks, mechanized troop carriers and infantry made it possible to advance at rapid speed. Germany quickly conquered Poland, defeated France, and controlled most of Europe by 1940. In 1941, Germany violated its non-aggression pact and invaded the Soviet Union. Americans at first tried to stay neutral in the War. After WW I, there had been a return to isolationism. Congress passed the Neutrality Acts, prohibiting Americans from traveling on ships of nations at war, or selling arms to nations at war. They could only sell non-military goods on a "cash-and-carry" basis. President Roosevelt was concerned at the rise of totalitarian states and the threat it presented to democracy. When Japan attacked China in 1837, he proposed that peaceful states quarantine aggressive nations. American volunteers also formed the Flying Tigers, a squadron of airplanes that helped keep supply lines to China open. After Germany occupied France, Congress passed the first peace-time draft. In 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act in order to sell, rent, or lend wartime equipment to Britain, which stood alone in facing the terror of Nazi Germany. In1941, Roosevelt secretly met Churchill and they agreed to the Atlantic Charter, laying the foundation for the future of the United Nations Surprisingly, events in Asia rather than Europe brought the United States into the war. Roosevelt threatened an embargo to force Japan to give up some of its conquests. Japanese leaders wanted to seize Indonesia for its oil. On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes launched a surprise attack on the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor. The next day Roosevelt asked for a declaration of was against Japan. To pay for the war, the federal government sold war bonds. Factories converted from peacetime to wartime production. The government rationed food and other goods so that it had sufficient supplies for armed forces overseas. Many Americans planted Victory Gardens to grow their own fruits and vegetables. The Office of War Information controlled radio broadcast, made posters and newsreels, and tried to promote unrest in Germany, Italy, and Japan. Women and minorities filled in the workforce for men overseas, and some women enlisted in the WACS, or Women's Army Corp. Tens of thousands of Japanese Americans were forcibly moved to interment camps as a result of Executive Order 9066. In 1944, the Supreme Court upheld the order in Korematsu v. U.S. Large numbers of men enlisted in the armed forces, and others were drafted. African-American were restricted to segregated units and kept from combat until later in he war. The Tuskegee Airmen were a group of African-American pilots who served as bomber escorts. In the Battle of the Bulge, African-American units were used for combat. Vernon Baker was awarded the Medal of Honor 52 years after he had heroically faced combat in Europe. Because Nazi Germany was the greater threat, Roosevelt focused on the war in Europe first. Stalin wanted the allies to open a second front in Western Europe, but the British felt the Americans were not prepared. American and British forces landed in North Africa in 1942 and moved to Sicily and Italy in 1943. General George Patton was one of the most successful U.S. commanders. General Dwight Eisenhower commanded the invasion of Normandy, known as D-Day. Allied troops advanced rapidly through France and retook Paris, but were surprised when Germany counterattacked at the Battle of the Bulge. After the German attack collapsed, Allied troops crossed into Germany. The end of the war came when Soviet troops invaded Germany from the east and the other Allies from the west. Hitler committed suicide in 1945. U.S. troops were shocked when they liberated the concentration camps and found the survivors of Hitler's attempt to exterminate the Jews and others in the Holocaust The United States also fought Japan in the Pacific in this multiple-front war. After Pearl harbor, Japan took several Pacific Islands. U.S. and Filipino prisoners of war were forced on the Bataan Death March. The tide in the Pacific turned in 1943 when the U.S. Navy, commanded by Admiral Chester Nimitz, defeated a Japanese fleet at the Battle of Midway. Under Gen. Douglas MacArthur, U.S. troops gradually retook the Pacific through the strategy of "island-hopping", eventually reaching close to Japan's home island. President Harry Truman decided to use the new atomic bomb against Japan. After bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, Japan surrendered. World War II, in which over 70 million people died, was over. The war ended with the rise of 2 Superpowers- The United States and the Soviet Union. Germany and Japan were occupied by allied troops , and their leaders were tried for war crimes. Germany was divided into four occupation zones. Key
People Adolf Hitler
Office of War Information Tuskegee Airmen
Executive Order 9066
Korematsu v. U.S.
Omar Bradley Holocaust
Bataan Death march
Navajo Code Talkers
Battle of Midway
Hiroshima/ Nagasaki Essential Questions What factors led to the outbreak of World War II? How were the United States and it's Allies able to win victory in World War II? What were the major effects of World War II on America and the World? A Return to Isolationism After WW I, Americans had returned to their
traditional policy of isolationism. They were more concerned with events at home than abroad. They felt safe behind the oceans separating them from Europe and Asia. They raised tariffs, restricted immigration, and even insisted that their wartime allies, France and Britain, pay back war debts owed to Americans from WW I. There were notable exceptions to this trend towards isolationism. Washington Naval Conference
-leading powers agreed to limit the size of their navies. Kellog-Briand Peace Pact
-signed by 62 nations
-renouncing the use of war Both Hoover and Roosevelt tried to improve U.S. realations with Latin America. "Good Neighbor Policy"
-the U.S. agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of Latin American nations.
-with this, relations between the U.S. and Latin American coutries improved Origins of World War World War I -The treaty that ended WW I was just harsh enough to make Germany really resentful, but not strong enough to keep them from becoming a military power again. The Great Depression
The depression reached all over the world. People were more willing to follow strong leaders who offered solutions (Hitler) The Rise of Dictatorships The Russian Revolution of 1917
-Russia became the world's first Communist State
-it will be called the Soviet Union In the 1920s Joseph Stalin seized power by eliminating his adversaries. He established a brutal totalitarian dictatorship. In other parts of Europe, new democracies were being established, but they stood on shakey ground. Many feared that the spread of Communismwould kill off democracies in Europe and pose a threat to the United States. German National Socialists (NAZIS) took advantage of the fears and emotions during the era Adolf Hitler was their leader Hitler established a dictatorship (after being elected leader) as brutal or worse than Stalin's Hitler's goal was German domination of Europe
(Mein Kampf) New party
Italian Fascists leader
-Benito Mussolini He destroyed all political opposition through his secret police and having outlawed workers to go on strike Failure of the League....(what league) League of Nations 1. too weak to resist these dictators
2. Collective security failed
-US and Soviet Union were not in the League
3. Germany and Japan left the League in 1930
4. the League did not prevent Hitler from rebuilding German army (treaty of Versailles)
-Italy from attacking Ethiopia
-Germany from bombing cities in Spain
-Japan from invading Manchuria Appeasement Fails: Munich Conference 1938-Hitler annexed Austria. Next he demanded the Sudetenland
(part of czech, a lot of Germans lived there) Hitler had a goal of uniting all German speaking people Britain and France promised to protect Czechoslovakia Munich Conference 1938: meeting with British, French, and German leaders. Hitler got what he wanted They didn't even ask the Czechs!!!! They were trying to avoid War.
(Remember WW I) Giving in to satisfy the demands of a potential enemy Hitler knew that they wouldn't stop him now!!! Use the internet or your library to research American attitudes in the 1930s to the rise of dictators like Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin, and the military leaders of Japan. The German invasion of Poland After Hitler was successful in taking the Sudetenland without force, he decided that no one would stop him from taking over Poland. Britain and France refused this time to give in to Hitler's demands. Knowing that War was on the horizon, Hitler signed a non-aggressive pact with Stalin of the Soviet Union. He wanted to use all his might to fight a one-front war and not have to split his forces if Stalin decided to help France and Britain. Hitler told Stalin that he could have part of Poland in return. When Germany invade Poland, Britain and France decared war on Germany. World War II had begun! During the invasion, Germany unveiled a new type of warfare. BLITZKREIG RAPID, COORDINATED MOVEMENTS BY AIRPLANES, TANKS, TROOP CARRIERS, AND INFANTRY. it's goal was to overwhelm the enemy Once the Germans defeated the Poles, they moved quickly to defeat the French and take over much of Europe. Unlike World War I, where the defensive position was the advantage through trench warfare, the offensive position was the advantage in World War II. Because of: Bombing of civilian cities from both sides tried to increase the terrors of war. Americans go to War! America preserves a cautious neutrality The Great Depression consumed the thoughts of Americans too much for them to be worried about affairs oversees. As tensions rose in Europe, Congress passed a series of laws to keep the country out of war. America had been drawn into WW I when German subs attacked American ships. To avoid this, Neutrality Acts prohibited:
-Americans from traveling on the ships of nations at war
-Americans from selling arms to countries at war
Americans could sell non-military goods to Britain and other nations opposed to aggression, but only on a "cash-and-carry" basis When Japan invaded China in 1937, President Roosevelt delivered his "Quarantine" Speech.
He warned Americans of the growing unrest in the world and told them that peaceful nations had to act together to quarantine (isolate) aggressive nations. Roosevelt encouraged democratic nations to boycott aggressors. Most Americans, however, remained opposed to U.S. military action in either Europe or Asia. Roosevelt's Quarantine Speech called for economic embargoes against aggressors. The speech caused an uproar with isolationists, and Roosevelt later backed down.
"It is my [hope] to pursue a policy of peace and avoid involvement in war. There is an interdependence about the modern world, which makes it impossible for any nation to isolate itself from [the] upheavals in the rest of the world, especially when such upheavals appear to be spreading. It seems that the epidemic of world lawlessness is spreading. When an epidemic of disease starts to spread, the community joins in a quarantine of the patients in order to protect the health of the community against the spread of the disease."
*If the free nations of the world had acted as Roosevelt proposed, would World War II have been prevented? Explain your answer.
*If you had been President of the United States in 1940, would you have supported continued isolationism? Write a speech for a "fireside chat" as your answer. British used the Burma Road to send supplies to China to keep them from falling to the Japanese. When this 700-mile route was cut off, a group of American volunteer fighter pilots known as the Flying Tigers, were recruited to send supplies and to engage in combat with Japanese pilots. These pilots destroyed almost 300 Japanese aircraft. Their abilities as pilots made possible stirring victories when early news stories in the United States were mostly filled with reports of Japanese forces advancing in the Pacific. Even after 1939, Americans still hoped to avoid involvement in the war, but they began to make preparations just in case they were dragged into the conflict.
Cogress increased spending on the Army and Navy, and enacted the first peacetime draft. Roosevelt also took the unusual decision of running for a third term-the first and last President to do so. In 1941, Roosevelt proposed the Lend-Lease Act to sell, lease, or lend war materials to "any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the United States."
American battleships began protection British ships crossing the Atlantic with supplies for Britain. Also in 1941, Roosevelt told Americans he hoped to establish a world based on "Four Freedoms":
1. Freedom of speech and expression
2. Freedom of religion
3. Freedom from want
4. Freedom from fear Later in 1941, Roosevelt met with English Prime Minister Winston Churchill, aboard a U.S. warship in the Atlantic. Roosevelt and Churcill announced that their countries sought no territorial gains, freedom of the seas, and an end to war. They signed the Atlantic Charter, laying a foundation for the later United Nations. America Enters the War Pres. Roosevelt believed that U.S. entry into the war was inevitable. If Hitler defeated Britain, many feared he would later attack the United States. In 1941, armed American merchant ships were authorized to carry supplies directly to Britain. It seemed that the U.S. involvement in the war was only a matter of time. Increasing United States-Japanese Tensions Surprisingly events in Asia, not Europe, finally brought the U.S. into the war. Just as German ambitions had triggered the war in Europe, Japan's aggressive designs led to war in Asia. Japan's industrialization in the late 19th century had been remarkably successful. But Japan needed raw materials and markets for their booming industries.
They also wanted to replace the European Imperialism presence in Asia with one that is from an Asian power. Japan's military began to influence Japanese national policy. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria.
In 1937, Japan atacked the rest of China. When Japan occupied southern Indochina in 1941, Roosevelt reacted by freezing Japanese assets in the United States and cutting off all trade with Japan. Roosevelt offered to resume trade with Japan if they removed themselves from China and Indochina. Japanese leaders refused. Pearl Harbor Japanese leaders decided to attack Indochina to obtain oil for their war effort. Realizing this would bring America into the war, They decided to attack first. They believed that if they could launch a surprise attack on the U.S. and cripple it's Pacific fleet, Japan could obtain all of it's goals before the U.S. could recover to fight. Japan also thought that the U.S. would tire of the war and negotiate a compromise peace-leaving Japan in control of East Asia. December 7, 1941
"A date which will live in Infamy" The day after the attack on Pearl Harbor President Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war against Japan.
"Yesterday, December 7th, 1941 -- a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.
The United States was at peace with that nation and...was still in conversation with its government...toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. And while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or of armed attack."
Should the American officials have been surprised by the attack on Pearl Harbor? Use the Internet to research your answer. Four days later, Germany and Italy, allies of Japan, declared war on the United States. Americans were now engaged in a war on two fronts-the Atlantic and Pacific. Who was to blame for Pear harbor? After the attack, some critics blamed the U.S. policies for forcing Japan to take action:
*In 1944, Oliver Lyttelton, a British government minister, said that, " Japan was provoked into attacking the Americans at Pearl Harbor. It is a travesty to say that America was forced into the war. Everyone knows where American sympathies were. It is incorrect to say that America was ever truly neutral even before America came into the war on a fighting basis."
*Even after Pearl Harbor, some Americans believed that the U.S. should have done more to "appease" Japan. Just after the attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. Senator Vandenberg wrote that "the United States would have had to yield relatively little to pacify Japan." He concluded that "we may have driven [Japan] needlessly into hostilities through our rigid diplomatic attitudes. We asked for it, and we got it."
Write a letter to either British Prime Minister Lyttelton or U.S. Senator Vandenberg explaining why you agree or disagree with his opinion. Complete the Graphic organizer describing some of the more significant developments that led to American entry into World War II Causes of World War II Failure of the League of Nations Rise of European Dictators Germany's invasion of Poland Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor America at WAR: The Home Front The U.S. government now faced the giant task of mobilizing American manpower and production to meet its enormous wartime needs. The demand for labor for the war effort brought an end to the lingering effects of the Great Depression. Paying for the War To raise the enormous amount of money needed to pay for the war, the government issued War Bonds and encouraged citizens to buy them.
The sale of war bonds also reduced the amount of currency in the economy, helping keep inflation down.
During WW II, 85 million Americans bought war bonds, bringing $185 billion -ten times the cost of World War I.
WW II marked a shift for the United States as it changed from a creditor to a debtor nation. The successful sale of war bonds also illustrated the high level of volunteerism during the war-the willingness of millions of Americans to help in the war effort. Industrial Production and Rationing U.S. industries switched rapidly from peacetime to wartime production. instead of this they made this Rationing regulated the amount of goods that a consumer could obtain. It was introduced to avoid public anger over shortages and to share in the sacrifices of war. Ration coupons were given to families based on how many people were in it. People were generally happy to help in the war effort. The need for labor brought an end to the Great Depression. Women, African Americans, and other minorities filled the gap as other workers went to fight the war. Victory Gardens These vegetable gardens helped to make sure that an adequate food supply was available for both troops and civilians. Tha gardens helped people in rural and urban neighborhoods grow their own food for their families, making more of the food raised by farmers available to the government for shipment to American troops overseas. The Office of War Information Primary focus of the government was the control of content and imagery of war messages. Responsibilities of the OWI:
-Asked people to contribute time and money
-Started the Voice of America - sending messages overseas
-stir up distrust of German,Italian, and Japanese leaders Women in the Workforce World War II brought sacrifices, but also new jobs, new skills, and new opportunities for women. Although prevented from enlisting in the regular armed forces, women joined the new Women's Army Corps, or WACS, in large numbers. After basic training, most of these women took clerical jobs in the military. in civilian life, many women replaced jobs formerly held by men, such as ship building and aircraft production. The more women that wee working, the more men could go off to war. Some refused to hire women, but between 1941 and 1945 more than 6.5 million women entered the workforce Ethnic Minorities: Opportunities and Obstacles African Americans Like many women, African Americans flooded the workforce to replace those who went off to war. African American soldiers also played a significant role in World War II. More than 2.5 million registered for the draft, of whom 1 million eventually served, even though they were forced to serve in segregated units.
African Americans had to battle on two fronts: the enemy overseas and the prejudice at home. African American leaders demanded and finally obtained permission to form all-black combat units.
The Tuskegee Airmen were an African American fighter group in the Air Corps. Their main job was to provide escorts for pilots on bombing missions.
They performed so well in combat that bomber groups often requested their support on runs.
By 1944, the army had come under pressure to allow African Americans to engage in combat on the ground and also formed an African American infantry division. Native Americans:
enlisted for military service in higher proportions than any other minority group. More than 25,000 served in combat during the war. Nearly 40,000 Native American men and women left their reservations for the first time to work in defense industries. Mexican Americans:
During the War, Mexican Americans served in both the army and the navy, and fought in all of the major campaigns.
Despite this, Mexican Americans, especially in California, continued to face segregated housing, high unemployment, and low wages. The Forced Relocation of Japanese Americans The attack on Pearl Harbor created fear among many Americans, especially along the West coast, that Japanese Americans (or Nisei) might commit acts of sabotage. These fears were racially motivated to an extent, German and Italian Americans were not proven to be more loyal than their Japanese couterparts. 1942-Executive Order 9066
This order permitted military commanders to require Japanese Americans to relocate to interior internment camps away from Westerncoastal regions.
In these camps, Japanese Americans lived in primitive and crowded conditions. Executive Order 9066 by President Roosevelt resulted in the internment of 110,00 Japanese Americans in camps for the duration of World War II:
"[A]s President and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War, and the Military Commanders, whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action to be necessary or desirable, to [order] military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Commander may determine, from which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right or any persons to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restriction the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion..."
*What did Executive Order 9066 authorize?
*What arguments would you have used either in support of or against this order? The relocation raised constitutional issues in wartime. Roosevelt justified the measures as a military neccesity. Korematsu v. U.S.
Supreme Court case that upheld the Order. 50 years later, Congress apologizd and voted to pay the families that were involved compensation. A small number of German and Italian resident aliens were also interned.
About 2,000 German alien residents were forcibly sent back to Germany.
Germans were also sent from Latin America to the united States to be used in prisoner exchanges with Germany. Applying what you have learned *on the internet, look up the findings of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Interment of Civilians, especially Chapter 12 of their report, Personal Justice Denied (1982). Write a brief summary of what you find.
*Use the internet to research conditions that existed in the U.S. internment camps housing Japanese Americans and others.
Find 2 images that illustrate the conditions that existed. Make a copy of these images and describe what they show. Complete the graphic organizer below by describing some of the significant events taking place on the home front in the United States. The Home Front Rationing and Wartime production Women in the Workforce Relocation of Japanese Americans Opportunities of Minorities The War In Europe Although the Japanese had attacked Pearl harbor, President Roosevelt decided to focus American energies on defeating Germany first. By the time the Americans entered the war, Hitler was in control of most of Europe and North Africa. Hitler made his greatest mistake when he invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941 and declared war on the United States before defeating Britain. By late 1941, Hitler's rapid advance into the Soviet Union was stopped just short of Moscow. Roosevelt and Churchill promised Stalin they would open a second front against Germany in the West, to relieve pressure on the Soviet Army. The Campaign in Africa and Italy The Americans and British now began one of the greatest collaborations in military history.
Churchill advised delay before invading Europe.
In 1942, Allied troops landed in North Africa.
Afer defeating German forces, they crossed the Mediterranean Sea and advanced into Sicily and Italy in 1943. George Patton was one of the commanders of the forces that invaded N. Africa and Sicily. General Patton:
-participated in expedition against Pancho Villa
-served under Gen. Pershing in WW I
-played an important role in the use of tanks
-told American soldiers they must have a "killer instinct" to succeed
-unconventional military leader
-given command of the Third Army
-popular among his troops (high survival rate)
-could also be harsh to those under his command
-under Patton, Third Army quickly moved through Europe, capturing large numbers of enemy soldiers, and freeing a vast territory