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[SBI4U1-03] TIMELINE

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Ceri C

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of [SBI4U1-03] TIMELINE

The Development of the Fluid Mosaic Model
Ceri Chu
SBI4U1-03
Mrs. K. Reid
April 23, 2014

1774 - 2004
Benjamin Franklin
1774
studied the effects of oil on the surface of water
performed experiments of oil on water
added oil to water from different environments and noticed the oil spread into a thin film
discovered that the oil was one molecule in thickness
1700
1800
1750
1850
1900
1950
2000
2050
Lord Rayleigh
(John William Strutt)
1890
quantitatively experimented with olive oil
measured the volume and area of the oil to calculate the thickness of the oil film
Statesman, philosopher, inventor, scientist
British Lord, physicist
Agnes Pockels
1890
German scientist
Charles Ernest Overton
1895
1774
1895
1890
1917
Irving Langmuir
1917
Evert Gorter & F. Grendel
1925
1925
Figure 1: Benjamin Franklin
http://thehistoryjunkie.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/benjamin-franklin1.jpg
Figure 7: Charles Ernest Overton
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_bXiAT6MOo8E/S2T7h8WcIaI/AAAAAAAACI0/MPwJ3C4SsWw/s640/overton.jpg
non-polar substances pass through more quickly through the cell membrane
if the organic solute's solubility in ethers and oils (lipids) is better than in aqueous solutions, they are readily permeable
proposed 2 hypotheses:
1.
"there are some similarities between cell membranes and lipids" (Eichman 22 Apr 2014)
2.
certain molecules pass through by dissolving in the lipid interior of the membrane

Botanist
1839
Matthias Schwann &
Theodor Schleiden
1839
Botanist
Figure 3: Theodor Schleiden
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Theodor_Schwann_Litho.jpg
Figure 2: Matthias Schwann
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/Matthias_Jacob_Schleiden.jpg
German biologist
recognized that some kind of membrane structure existed
forms a boundary around the cell
1840
Julius Bernstein
1840
German physiologist
Figure 4: Julius Bernstein
http://www.bccn-goettingen.de/AboutBCCN/julius_bernstein.jpg
found out that the membrane structure has various parts
i.e. "an anatomical entity" (Robertson 22 Apr 2014)
discovered through drawing sarcolemma
Figure 5: Lord Rayleigh
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/John_William_Strutt.jpg/446px-John_William_Strutt.jpg
Figure 6: Agnes Pockels
http://fe867b.medialib.glogster.com/media/0d/0d4bbdbe05a5b5845c42f9eafafcb7b10f60afbb59441f4f606679dc41f9762b/agnes-pockels.jpg
Figure 8: Irving Langmuir
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Irving_Langmuir.jpg
Botanist
improved Agnes Pockels' model for measuring pressure of films
helps with finding the area of each lipid molecule
showed how lipids spread to form a thin film on water
proposed that the lipid molecules form a monolayer
hydrocarbon tails are bent
Figure 9: Evert Gorter
http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/bwn1880-2000/lemmata/bwn1/images/GORTER.jpg
experimented with extracted lipids from erythrocytes from human, rabbits, dogs, guinea pigs, sheep, and goats
since erythrocytes have no nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, they knew that the lipids must be from the cell membrane
lipids spontaneously form a bilayer when mixed with water
calculated the surface area
realized that it was twice the surface area of the cell
concluded that the lipid molecules form bilayers
even though there were miscalculations, they had correct conclusions
German physiologist
1935
James Danielli &
Hugh Davson
1935
English biologist
Figure 10: James Danielli
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_bXiAT6MOo8E/S2T8ijYzqHI/AAAAAAAACJM/6LLpce0Ft4E/s640/cole.jpg
Journalist
Figure 11: Hugh Davson
https://dcprinciples.org/sections/cell/Davson10.jpg
proposed that the cell membrane is a lipid bilayer
understood as a "sandwich" of lipids
both sides of the membrane have proteins
major component of the membrane model
1957
J. David Robertson
1957
Chemist
Figure 13: J. David Robertson
https://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/documents/neurology/images/Robertson-photo.jpg
modified the membrane model based on electron microscope studies
he calls it the "unit membrane"
used a transmission electron microscope
saw that membranes have a "trilaminar" appearance
there are two darker outer lines (proteins and bilipid layer) and a lighter inner region
1962
Walther Stoeckenius
1962
Biophysicist
Figure 14: Walther Stoeckenius
http://www.nasonline.org/member-directory/images/50041.jpg
used electron microscopy to examine the membrane at a high resolution
image clearly showed a three layered structure, not two
the outsides of the image appeared as two dark layers while the interior was not as dark
it looked like there were three layers but the bilayer stained more densely than the interior
1936
E. Newton Harvey
1936
American zoologist
figured out surface tension of plasma membrane was lower in comparison with other lipids
"it was known that the addition of protein to oil lowers the surface tension" (Cotterill 162)
Figure 12: E. Newton Harvey
http://hpsrepository.asu.edu/bitstream/handle/10776/3108/MBL_ALBUM%202%20PAGE%2046_ENHarvey.web.jpg?sequence=2
1972
1984
Jonathan Singer &
Garth Nicolson
1972
Biochemist
Figure 15:
http://www.leg.state.co.us/clics/clics2013a/directory.nsf/0/6658E8DF971F2BCD872579920050A6AD/$FILE/H-Singer.jpg
Figure 16:
http://beyondthebandaid.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/GarthNicolson3.jpg
Cell biologist
basic lipid bilayer structure
hydrophilic (polar) heads face outwards while hydrophobic tails make up the interior
contains globular proteins, channels, and pores that float within lipid bilayer
such as peripheral and integral proteins
allow for transport through the membrane
asymmetrical structure
Nigel Unwin &
Richard Henderson
1984
Biologist
Staff scientist
Figure 19:
http://home2.btconnect.com/heptares/people/richard-henderson-main.jpg
Figure 18:
http://legacy.mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk/CDS2008/Faculty/Nigel_unwin.jpg
discovered the nature of the membrane proteins in the cell membrane
arrangement of proteins form an alpha helix
1973
George E. Palade
1973
Cell biologist
researched on cellular transport
how and what substances move through the cell membrane
"established links between defects in cellular protein production and various illnesses" ("George Palade" 22 Apr 2014)
Figure 17:
http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/archive/graphics/images/2008/10-08GeorgePaladeBIG.jpg
measured exact area of thin film
studied surface tension
consulted Lord Rayleigh after his publishing about thin films
2004
2003
See
WORD DOCUMENT
for Works Cited
File Name:
Timeline Works Cited
Roderick Mackinnon
2003
studied structures of ion channels in the cell membrane
different structures regulate the flow of ions
"the mechanism by which an ion channel opens and closes in response to a voltage across the membrane" (Goho 22 Apr 2014) is what controls the flow
this is an example for chlorine ions
G. N. Mozhayeva
2004
molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling in the cell membrane
involves receptor signals to stimulate processes in the cell
different experiments were used to find out how to activate the calcium channels within the membrane of unexcitable cells
they found out that "products of a phosphoinositides exchange participate in regulation of calcium channels" (Kaznacheyeva 22 Apr 2014)
Full transcript