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Rise Of Nationalism in Europe
Transcript of Rise Of Nationalism in Europe
Giving a face to nation was one of the major challenges faced by 18th and 19th century artists.
They found a way out by personifying a nation.
A female figure became an
of the nation.
French Revolution artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic.
The ideals were represented by specific objects or symbols. A red cap for liberty, blindfolded woman for justice etc.
In France, christened Marianne underlined the idea of people's nation.
Germania became the allegory of German nation.
nationalism and imperialism
By the last quarter of 19th century,nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends.
The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the balkans.
The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria etc.
Balkans was mostly under the control of Ottoman empire.
Ideas of romantic imagination and disintegaration of Ottoman empire made this region very explosive.
Nationalities struggled to define their independence. Balkan area became an area of intense conflict.
During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies.
This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
French Revolution took place in 1789.this was the time when people wanted to get rid of a Monarch.The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.A centralised administrative system was put in place.Jacobin clubs were st up in other parts of Europe.
Age of Revolutions
During this period, many people from all over Europe came together for liberalism and nationalism.
in 1830 France, The Bourbon kings were overthrown again by the revollutionaries.
Metternich once marked, 'When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold'. This is what happend after july1830.
An event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe was the
Greek war of independence.
Greece was a part of Ottoman empire since 15th century. From the year of 1821, they were struggling for independence.
Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation
A print prepared by Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist, visualised his dream of a world made up of 'democratic and social republics'.
All the people of Europe and America were paying homage to the statue of liberty as at this time liberty was personified as a female figure.
This chapter deals with many issues visualised by sorrieu.It explains how the idea of nationalism emerged and brought changes in Europe.
Rise Of Nationalism in Europe
Making of natioalism in Europe
Making of Germany and Italy
Germany as a nation:
Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process.
The nation-building process in Germany had demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power.
The new state placed a strong emphasis on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany.
Prussian measures and practices often became a model for the rest of Germany.
Nationalism, aligned with imperialism, led Europe to disaster in 1914. But meanwhile, many countries in the world which had been colonised by the European powers in the nineteenth century began to oppose imperial domination. The anti-imperial movements that developed everywhere were nationalist, in the sense that they all struggled to form independent nation-states, and were inspired by a sense of collective national unity, forged in confrontation with imperialism. European ideas of nationalism were nowhere replicated, for people everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism. But the idea that societies should be organised into ‘nation-states’ came to be accepted as natural and universal.
Napolean -Rise and fall
After the end of bourboun dynasty in france,Napolean took over the control of France.The civil code of 1804 is usually called the napoleanic code.He established equality before the law, abolished fuedal system and freed the peasants from manorial dues and serfdom.All the citizens were happy.But Napolean also possesed the characteristics of a monarch.As time passed people coldn't digest this and removed Napolean from power.
There were no nation states during the mid 18th century.
What we know today as Germany, Italy were under kingdoms.
The only tie binding diverse people was they were all under one empire.
But how did these ideas of nationalism and nation-state emerge?
lets find out.
Aristrocracy and New Middle class
Aristrocracy was the dominating class though they were numerically small group.They spoke French.
To the west of Europe small owners and tenants used to cultivate land.
Serfs sed to cultivate their lands in Eastern and Central Europe.
Western and parts of Central Europe were left for industrial production.
Industrialisation in England began in second half of 18th century.
A working class poppulation, middle class made up of industrialists,bussinessmen, professionals came into existence.
Liberalism originated from latin meaning free.
Since the French Revolution, liberalism stood for end of autocracy.
New middle class wanted equality before law.
Equality did not stand for universal suffrage.
Men without property and women were excluded from political rights.
In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of market and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
New commercial class argued for a unified economic territory allowing movement of people, goods, capital.
or a custom union an initiative by Prussia, supported by german states was formed in 1834. This abolished tariff barriers and did many.
Idea of economic nationalism got strengthened.
New Conservatism and Revolutionaries
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism.
They understood that a modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
In 1815, representatives of Europe,who cllectively defeated Napolean met at Vienna.
They drew up the treaty of Vienna 1815 with the object of undoing the changes occured in Europe.
The Bourbon dynasty restored power.
Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent. Censorship was also imposed
During 1815, secret societies sprang up o train revolutionaries.To be a revolutionary was to fight for Liberty and Freedom.
was born in Genoa in 1807 and became a member of secret society.
At the age of 24, Mazzini was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
He found 2 underground societies: Young Italy in Marseilles, Young Europe in Berne.
Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.
Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives.
Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.
In the case of Poland, though it didn't exist as independent territory, national feelings were kept alive through music and language.
Language was used as a weapon of national resistance during the year of 1831.
Hunger, Hardship, Popular
1830s were the years great economic hardship in Europe.
People had to face manyproblems like over population, unemployment, competition from imports, etc.
1848 was one such year.
People of Paris were out on roads due to food shortages.
National Assembly proclaimed a Republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work.
National workshops to provide employment were set up.
1848: Revolution of Liberals
In 1848, a revolution by middle class was underway.
People from parts of Europe, where nation-states did not exist, also participated in the revolution.
All-German National Assembly was formed by people of large political associations in Germany.
On 18th May 1848 they marched to St.Paul church and drafted a constitution but the assembly was forced to disband.
Women had actively participated in getting political rights. They made associations, newspapers etc.
Despite this they were deniedsuffrage rightsduring assembly election.
Though conservative forces were able to suppress liberal movements in 1848, they could not restore the old order.
Monarchs were beginning to realise that the cycles of revolution and repression could only be ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.
changes in laws were taking place in Central and Eastern Europe.
During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.
The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings.
Guiseppe Mazzini has played a key role in unifying Italy. He found secret societies, programmes etc.
The failure of revolutionaries, put the responsibility of unifying Italy on King Victor.
For the ruling Elites, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance.
In 1859, Austrian forces were defeated by Sardinia-Piedmont.
In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers.
In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy
Case of Britain
In Britain the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.
It was the result of a long-drawn-out process.
It was consisting of different ethnic groups such as English, Welsh, Scot, Irish etc.
English men were more powerful, and English parliament had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 .
This was the time when a nation-state was formed with England as its center.
English members dominated the British parliament.
In the case of Ireland, where catholics and protestants were deeply divided, britain supported the protestants and Ireland was forcibl incorporated into 'British Nation'.