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The Nature of Music

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Lillian Nguyen

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of The Nature of Music

Objectives Relate the pitch of a wave to the amount of energy used to create the vibration of the object producing the sound wave. Describe the changing pitch of sound in terms of speed, frequency, and wavelength of sound waves using the formula Speed = Wavelength x Frequency Of Music The Nature What Is Music? Music is a set of notes that combine in a pattern that sounds pleasing to the human ear. What differentiates clashing noise and music is called sound quality. Sound quality of music depends on the musical instruments playing. This results from blending a fundamental tone and its overtones. Resonance also plays a role in sound quality.
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/sound-pitch-loudness-timbre.htm#sub4 Sound Quality In many instruments, such as piano and guitar, there are things called chords. Chords are a set of notes that sound pleasing together. For example, the C major chord. The notes C, E, and G combine to make music. However, if you were to play notes, say, F and G, they would most likely clash together, and sound unpleasant. Fundamental Tones and
Overtones Music sounds pleasing because there is a fundamental tone and its overtones. In the previous example, C would be the fundamental tone and E and G would be the overtones. This is what fundamental tones and overtones look like. Fundamental Tone
Ex: Note C First Overtone
Ex: Note E Second Overtone
Ex: Note G Just A Quick
Review Vocabulary Words Amplitude
Wavelength
Frequency
Hertz (Hz)
Speed
Longitudinal Wave
Ultrasound
Infra sound
Doppler effect
Fundamental tone
Overtone
Music Transverse Waves
Sound
Intensity
Loudness
Pitch
Decibel (dB) Amplitude: The maximum distance that the particles of the medium carry the sound wave away from the rest position.
Wavelength: The distance between 2 corresponding parts of a wave.
Frequency: The # of complete waves in a certain time period.
Hertz (Hz): A unit of measure used for frequency. One wave per second is 1 Hz
Speed: How quickly a wave travels. This can be calculated by the formula Speed = Wavelength x Frequency
Longitudinal Wave: A wave that moves the medium parallel to the wave's direction Transverse Waves: Waves that move perpendicular to the wave's direction
Sound: Vibrations that travel through the air or another medium and can be heard when they reach a person's or animal's ear.
Intensity: The amount of energy a sound wave carries per second through a unit area.
Loudness: Your perception of the energy of sound.
Pitch: How high or low a sound is. Pitch depends upon frequency; the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch.
Decibel (dB): The loudness of different sounds. Ultrasound: Sound waves with frequencies above the normal human hearing range.
Infra sound: Sound waves with frequencies below the normal hearing range.
Doppler effect: The change in sound's frequency caused by the sound source moving.
Fundamental tone: The lowest natural frequency of an object.
Overtone: The object's higher natural frequencies.
Music: A set of notes (such as the song being played) that combine together in patterns that are pleasing to humans. Created by: The fundamental tone, first overtone, and second overtone add together to from a resulting wave (shown below). The Three Music-teers Get it? The three Muskateers? The three Music-teers? There are three groups of musical instruments! Get it? It's supposed to be punny! (Haha I did it again!)

Sorry. Yeah, I know that was bad. Now, back to the presentation... Just a Side Note There are three groups of musical instruments (as we have created). There are the stringed instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments. Each musical group is played differently. Therefore, the pitch and loudness are controlled differently. (The instrumentalist controls the pitch and loudness of the instrument.) Strings String instruments produce music
by vibrating their strings. Their loudness is increased by resonance when the instrument's hollow body vibrates as the strings vibrate. The pitch of each string depends on its length, thickness, the material it is made up of, and how tightly it's stretched. String Instrument
Examples Violin Harp Wind There are 2 types of wind instruments: brass and woodwind. Brass instruments make sound when the player's lips vibrate against the mouthpiece. Woodwinds create music when the reed inside vibrates. In wind instruments, the length of the vibrating air column determines the pitch. Examples of Wind Instruments Flute (brass wind
Instrument) Clarinet (woodwind
wind Instrument) Percussion Percussion instruments create music by vibrating when struck. The pitch of the instrument depends on its size, the material it is made up of, and the tension in the drum head. A large drum produces lower pitches than a smaller drum. Examples of Percussion Instruments The drums Xylophones Question: What is the effect of the amount of energy in a sound wave on the amplitude of a sound wave? A DEMONSTRATION Answer: The more energy in a sound wave, the louder the sound is. This is because the more energy you use, the greater the amplitude of the vibration. The larger the amplitude, the louder the sound wave is.

http://lolsnaps.com/upload_pic/Ohlookitsoneofthosegifsyoucanhear-68647.gif
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/sound-pitch-loudness-timbre.htm#sub3 Question: What is the effect of changing the speed, frequency, and wavelength of a sound wave on pitch? Answer: Pitch depends mainly on frequency. The greater the frequency, the higher the pitch. When a sound waves vibrates more quickly, the frequency increases, and so does the pitch.
Also, frequency = speed ÷ wavelength. Increasing the speed would increase the frequency and pitch. Increasing the wavelength would decrease the frequency and pitch.
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/frequency-pitch-sound.htm#sub2
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/sound-pitch-loudness-timbre.htm#sub2 GAME SHOW Instructions: Answer the following questions to the best of your ability. If you answer the question correctly then you receive a piece of candy. Good Luck! Question: Does increasing the amount of energy in a sound also make the pitch higher? Answer: No, it does not. Though sounds with higher frequency may sound louder (and therefore have more energy), the sound isn't actually louder because of the higher pitch. Human ears are just more sensitive to higher pitches. I Lillian Nguyen, Krishna Gogineni, Nikita Nambiar, and Matthew Nguta http://www.bgfl.org/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks2/music/piano/ frequency = speed ÷ wavelength. Our Instrument Our instrument is the pipe-guitar represent wind and strings. The drums represent percussion. Our drum-pipe-strings change pitch by making the air columns vary. Shorter pipes and shorter guitar strings mean higher pitches. In the percussion, the size of the pipe changes the pitch, though vary slightly. For the pipe-guitar, blowing harder and strumming harder makes a louder noise. For drums, hitting harder makes the sound louder. https://skydrive.live.com/fullscreen?cid=84ed5029a1a426fb&id=documents&resid=84ED5029A1A426FB!128&filename=GAME%20SHOW.pptx&wx=p&wv=s&wc=officeapps.live.com&wy=y&wdSlideId=257
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